Monday, 29 December 2014

Northrop Frye: The Archetypes of Literature

The Archetypes of Literature (1951): Northrop Frye

Northrop Frye
1.      I n what way Archetypal  criticism discovers basic cultural pattern?
2.      “Frye proposed that the totality of literary woks constitute a “self-contained literary universe” “. Discuss.
3.      “In literary criticism the term archetype denotes recurrent narratives designs, patterns of action, character-types, themes, and images which are identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature.” Elucidate with N.Frye’s views in his essay Archetype of Literature
4.      .
Answer:
What is Archetypal Criticism? What are the sources of its origin?
In literary criticism the term archetype denotes recurrent narratives designs, patterns of action, character-types, themes, and images which are identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature, as well as in myths, dreams, and even social rituals. Such recurrent items are held to be the result of elemental and universal forms or patterns in the human psyche, whose effective embodiment in a literary work evokes a profound response from the attentive reader, because he or she shares the psychic archetypes expressed by the author. An important antecedent of the literary theory of the archetype was the treatment of myth by a group of comparative anthropologists at Cambridge University, especially James G. Frazer, whose The Golden Bough (1890-1915) identified elemental patterns of myth and ritual that , claimed, recur in the legends and ceremonials of diverse and far-flung cultures and religions. An even more important antecedent was the depth psychology of Carl G. Jung(1875-1961), who applied the term “archetype” to what he called “primordial images”, the “psychic residue” of repeated patterns of experience in our very ancient ancestors which, he maintained, survive in the “collective unconscious” of the human race and are expressed in myths, religion, dreams, and private fantasies, as well as in works of literature.

Where is archetypal literary criticism manifested? Who are pioneers of archetypal literary criticism? What types of archetypal themes, images and characters are traced in literature by them?
Archetypal literary criticism was given impetus by Maud Bodkin’s Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934) and flourished especially during the 1950s and 1960s. Apart from him, the other prominent practitioners of various modes of archetypal criticism were G. Wilson Knight, Robert Graves, Philip Wheelwright, Richard Chase, Leslie Fiedler, and Joseph Campbell. These critics tended to emphasize the occurrence of mythical patterns in literature, on the assumption that myths are closest to the elemental archetype than the artful manipulation of sophisticated writers.

The death/re-birth theme was often said to be the archetype of archetypes, and was held to be grounded in the cycle of the seasons and the organic cycle of human life; this archetype, it was claimed, occur in primitive rituals of the king who is annually sacrificed, in widespread myths of gods who die to be reborn, and in a multitude of diverse texts, including the Bible, Dante’s Divine Comedy in the early 14th cen., and S.T.Coleridge’sRime of Ancient Mariner in 1798.
Among the other archetypal themes, images and characters frequently traced in literature were the journey underground, the heavenly ascent, the search, the Paradise/Hades dichotomy, the Promethean rebel-hero, the scapegoat, the earth goddess, and the fatal woman.

What is Northrop Frye’s contribution to the archetypal criticism?
Bodkin’s Archetypal Patterns in Poetry, the first work on the subject of archetypal literary criticism, applies Jung’s theories about the collective unconscious, archetypes, and primordial images to literature. It was not until the work of the Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye that archetypal criticism was theorized in purely literary terms. The major work of Frye’s to deal with archetypes is Anatomy of Criticism but his essay The Archetypes of Literature is a precursor to the book. Frye’s thesis in “The Archetypes of Literature” remains largely unchanged in Anatomy of Criticism. Frye’s work helped displace New Criticism as the major mode of analyzing literary texts, before giving way to structuralism and semiotics[1].

Frye’s work breaks from both Frazer and Jung in such a way that it is distinct from its anthropological and psychoanalytical precursors.

In his remarkable and influential book Anatomy of Criticism (1957), N. Frye developed the archetypal approach into a radical and comprehensive revision of traditional grounds both in the theory of literature and the practice of literary criticism.

For Frye, the death-rebirth myth that Frazer sees manifest in agriculture and the harvest is not ritualistic since it is involuntary, and therefore, must be done. As for Jung, Frye was uninterested about the collective unconscious on the grounds of feeling it was unnecessary: since the unconscious is unknowable it cannot be studied. How archetypes came to be was also of no concern to Frye; rather, the function and effect of archetypes is his interest.

Frye proposed that the totality of literary works constitute a “self-contained literary universe” which has been created over the ages by the human imagination so as to assimilate the alien and indifferent world of nature into archetypal forms that serve to satisfy enduring human desires and needs. In this literary universe, four radical mythoi (i.e. plot forms, or organizing structural principles), correspondent to the four seasons in the cycle of the natural world, are incorporated in the four major genres of comedy (spring), romance (summer), tragedy (autumn), and satire (winter).

Within the overarching archetypal mythos of each of these genres, individual works of literature also play variations upon a number of more limited archetypes – that is, conventional patterns and types that literature shares with social rituals as well a with theology, history, law, and , in fact, all “discursive verbal structures.” Viewed arhetypally, Frye asserted, literature turns out to play an essential role in refashioning the impersonal material universe into an alternative verbal universe that is intelligible and viable, because it is adapted to universal human needs and concerns.

Mythos Grid


There are two basic categories in Frye’s framework, i.e., comedic and tragic. Each category is further subdivided into two categories: comedy and romance for the comedic; tragedy and satire (or ironic) for the tragic. Though he is dismissive of Frazer, Frye uses the seasons in his archetypal schema. Each season is aligned with a literary genre: comedy with spring, romance with summer, tragedy with autumn, and satire with winter.

·        Comedy is aligned with spring because the genre of comedy is characterized by the birth of the hero, revival and resurrection. Also, spring symbolizes the defeat of winter and darkness.
·        Romance and summer are paired together because summer is the culmination of life in the seasonal calendar, and the romance genre culminates with some sort of triumph, usually a marriage.
·        Autumn is the dying stage of the seasonal calendar, which parallels the tragedy genre because it is, (above all), known for the “fall” or demise of the protagonist.
·        Satire is metonymized[2] with winter on the grounds that satire is a “dark” genre. Satire is a disillusioned and mocking form of the three other genres. It is noted for its darkness, dissolution, the return of chaos, and the defeat of the heroic figure.

The context of a genre determines how a symbol or image is to be interpreted. Frye outlines five different spheres in his schema: human, animal, vegetation, mineral, and water.
·        The comedic human world is representative of wish-fulfillment and being community centered. In contrast, the tragic human world is of isolation, tyranny, and the fallen hero.

·        Animals in the comedic genres are docile and pastoral (e.g. sheep), while animals are predatory and hunters in the tragic (e.g. wolves).

·        For the realm of vegetation, the comedic is, again, pastoral but also represented by gardens, parks, roses and lotuses. As for the tragic, vegetation is of a wild forest, or as being barren.

·        Cities, temples, or precious stones represent the comedic mineral realm. The tragic mineral realm is noted for being a desert, ruins, or “of sinister geometrical images” (Frye 1456).

Stonehenge

·        Lastly, the water realm is represented by rivers in the comedic. With the tragic, the seas, and especially floods, signify the water sphere.
Frye admits that his schema in “The Archetypes of Literature” is simplistic, but makes room for exceptions by noting that there are neutral archetypes. The example he cites are islands such as Circe[3]’s or Prospero’s which cannot be categorized under the tragic or comedic.

How do contemporary critics view Frye’s archetypal criticism?

Arguments about the Contemporary Dilemma with Frye’s Archetypal Literary Criticism

It has been argued that Frye’s version of archetypal criticism strictly categorizes works based on their genres, which determines how an archetype is to be interpreted in a text. According to this argument the dilemma Frye’s archetypal criticism faces with more contemporary literature, and that of post-modernism in general, is that genres and categories are no longer distinctly separate and that the very concept of genres has become blurred, thus problematizing Frye’s schema. For instance Beckett’s Waiting For Godot is considered a tragicomedy, a play with elements of tragedy and satire, with the implication that interpreting textual elements in the play becomes difficult as the two opposing seasons and conventions that Frye associated with genres are pitted against each other.

But in fact, arguments about generic blends such as tragicomedy go back to the Renaissance, and Frye always conceived of genres as fluid. Frye thought literary forms were part of a great circle and were capable of shading into other generic forms. (Diagram of his wheel in Anatomy of Criticism[4])


Grave Digger's Scene: 'Hamlet'

What are the examples of archetypes in literature?
Archetypes fall into two major categories: characters, situations/symbols. It is easiest to understand them with the help of examples. Listed below are some of the most common archetypes in each category.
Characters[i]:
  1. The hero - The courageous figure, the one who's always running in and saving the day. Example: Dartagnon from Alexandre Dumas's "The Three Musketeers". (Hamlet, Macbeth, Tom Jones, Moll, … )
  2. The outcast - The outcast is just that. He or she has been cast out of society or has left it on a voluntary basis. The outcast figure can oftentimes also be considered as a Christ figure. Example: Simon from William Golding's "The Lord of the Flies". ( Pandavs, Ram-Sita-laxman, Sugreve, Duke, Orlando, Rosalind in As You Like It, tramps in Godot, …)
  3. The scapegoat - The scapegoat figure is the one who gets blamed for everything, regardless of whether he or she is actually at fault. Example: Snowball from George Orwell's "Animal Farm". [Tom Jones, Darcy in P&P (breaking of Lizzy’s sis’s relationship, elopement), Technology in BNW, Tess for death of Prince, giving birth to Sorrow, …]
  4. The star-crossed lovers - This is the young couple joined by love but unexpectedly parted by fate. Example: Romeo and Juliet from William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet". [ Tess and Angel, Heer – Ranjha, Sheeri – Farhad, ….]
  5. The shrew - This is that nagging, bothersome wife always battering her husband with verbal abuse. Example: Zeena from Edith Wharton's "Ethan Frome". [Katherina in Taming of Shrew, Paul’s mother in S&L, Lizzy’s mother in P&P.
6.      Femme Fatale[5]: A female character type who brings upon catastrophic and disastrous events. Eve from the story of Genesis or Pandora from Greek mythology are two such figures. Seta, Draupadi or Surparnakha
  1. The Journey: A narrative archetype where the protagonist must overcome a series of obstacles before reaching his or her goal. The quintessential journey archetype in Western culture is arguably Homer’s Odyssey


Situations/symbols:

  • Archetypal symbols vary more than archetype narratives or character types, but any symbol with deep roots in a culture's mythology, such as the forbidden fruit in Genesis or even the poison apple in Snow White, is an example of a symbol that resonates to archetypal critics.
  • The task - A situation in which a character, or group of characters, is driven to complete some duty of monstrous proportion. Example: Frodo's task to keep the ring safe in J. R. R. Tolkein's "The Lord of the Rings" trilogy. AthurianLegends, , bring Helen back to Troy, Kurukshetra’s battle for Arjun, Savitri…)
  • The quest - Here, the character(s) are searching for something, whether consciously or unconsciously. Their actions, thoughts, and feelings center around the goal of completing this quest. Example: Christian's quest for salvation in John Bunyan's "The Pilgrim's Progress". (Search for Holy Grail, Search for Sita, Nal-Damaanti, Savitri for Satyakam’s life, Shakuntala in Kalidas, Don Quixote, Jude,  …)
  • The loss of innocence - This is, as the name implies, a loss of innocence through sexual experience, violence, or any other means. Example: Val's loss of innocence after settling down at the mercantile store in Tennessee William's "Orpheus Descending". [Moll, Tess, Tom, Jude, …]
  • Water - Water is a symbol of life, cleansing, and rebirth. It is a strong life force, and is often depicted as a living, reasoning force.
Wate[ii]r: birth-death-resurrection; creation; purification and redemption; fertility and growth.
Sea/ocean: the mother of all life; spiritual mystery; death and/or rebirth; timelessness and eternity.
  • Rivers: death and rebirth (baptism); the flowing of time into eternity; transitional phases of the life cycle. . . . Example: Edna learns to swim in Kate Chopin's "The Awakening". {Water movie and novel by BapsiSidhwa, Death by Water, polluted River in Waste Land…]
Sun (fire and sky are closely related): creative energy; thinking, enlightenment, wisdom, spiritual vision.
Rising sun: birth, creation, enlightenment.
Setting sun: death.
Colors:
Red: blood, sacrifice, passion; disorder.
Green: growth, hope, fertility.
Blue: highly positive; secure; tranquil; spiritual purity.
Black: darkness, chaos, mystery, the unknown, death, wisdom, evil, melancholy.
White: light, purity, innocence, timelessness; [negative: death, terror, supernatural]
Yellow: enlightenment, wisdom.
Serpent (snake, worm): symbol of energy and pure force (libido); evil, corruption, sensuality, destruction.
Numbers:
3 - light, spiritual awareness, unity (the Holy Trinity); male principle.
4 - associated with the circle, life cycle, four seasons; earth, nature, elements.
7 - the most potent of all symbolic numbers signifying the union of three and four, the completion of a cycle, perfect order, perfect number; religious symbol.
Wise old Man: savior, redeemer, guru, representing knowledge, reflection, insight, wisdom, intuition, and morality.
Garden: paradise, innocence, unspoiled beauty.
Tree: denotes life of the cosmos; growth; proliferation; symbol of immortality; phallic symbol.
Desert: spiritual aridity; death; hopelessness.
Creation: All cultures believe the Cosmos was brought into existence by some Supernatural Being (or Beings).
Seasons:
Spring - rebirth; genre/comedy.
Summer - life; genre/romance.
Fall - death/dying; genre/tragedy.
Winter - without life/death; genre/irony.
(If winter has come, can spring be far behind?)
(April is the cruelest month…)
The great fish: divine creation/life. (Matsyavatar)
Freud's symbolism/archetypes:
Concave images (ponds, flowers, cups, vases, hollows): female or womb symbols.
Phallic symbols (towers, mountain peaks, snakes, knives, swords, etc.) male symbols.
Dancing, riding, or flying: symbols of sexual pleasure.
Archetypes can be found in nearly all forms of literature, with their motifs being predominantly rooted in folklore.
William Shakespeare is known for creating many archetypal characters that hold great social importance in his native land, such as
Hamlet, the self-doubting hero and the initiation archetype with the three stages of separation, transformation, and return;
Falstaff, the bawdy, rotund comic knight;
Romeo and Juliet, the ill-fated ("star-crossed") lovers;
Richard II, the hero who dies with honor; and many others.
Although Shakespeare based many of his characters on existing archetypes from fables and myths (e.g., Romeo and Juliet on Pyramus and Thisbe), Shakespeare's characters stand out as original by their contrast against a complex, social literary landscape.
For instance, in The Tempest, Shakespeare borrowed from a manuscript by William Strachey that detailed an actual shipwreck of the Virginia-bound 17th-century English sailing vessel Sea Venture in 1609 on the islands of Bermuda. Shakespeare also borrowed heavily from a speech by Medea in Ovid's Metamorphoses in writing Prospero's renunciative speech; nevertheless, the unique combination of these elements in the character of Prospero created a new interpretation of the sage magician as that of a carefully plotting hero, quite distinct from the wizard-as-advisor archetype of Merlin or Gandalf. Both of these are likely derived from priesthood authority archetypes, such as Celtic Druids, or perhaps Biblical figures like Abraham, Moses, etc.; or in the case of Gandalf, the Norse figure Odin.

References

  • Abrams, M. H. "Archetypal Criticism." A Glossary of Literary Terms. Fort Worth: HBJ, 1993. 223 - 225
  • Bates, Roland. Northrop Frye. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971.
  • Frye, Northrop. "The Archetypes of Literature." The Norton Anthology: Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent B. Leitch. New York: Norton, 2001. 1445 - 1457
  • Knapp, Bettina L. "Introduction." A Jungian Approach to Literature. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984. ix - xvi
  • Leitch, Vincent B. "Northrop Frye." The Norton Anthology: Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent B. Leitch. New York: Norton, 2001. 1442 - 1445
  • -- "Carl Gustav Jung." The Norton Anthology: Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent B. Leitch. New York: Norton, 2001. 987 - 990
  • Segal, Robert A. "Introduction." Jung on Mythology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998. 3 - 48
  • Walker, Steven F. Jung and the Jungians on Myth. New York: Garland Publishing, 1995. 3 - 15
 
Resources
Books
Frye, Northrop.  Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957. (Available in the UHS Library)
 
The Northrop Frye International Literary Festival: http://www.northropfrye.com/home.htm  
Northrop Frye, Bedford/St. Martin's: http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/litlinks/critical/frye.htm 
Northrop Frye, The Literary Encyclopedia:http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=1648
Northrop Frye Collection, Victoria University Library:http://library.vicu.utoronto.ca/special/fryeintro.htm 
Anatomy of Criticism, Book Review:http://pages.prodigy.net/aesir/aoc.htm
Wikipedia Links
General Interest
Northrop Frye, Simulation, and the Creation of a "Human World": http://www.transparencynow.com/introfry2.htm



[1]Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis), or signification and communication, signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood.Syntactics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the formal properties of signs and symbols

[2] In rhetoric, metonymy (IPA: /mɨˈtɒnɨmi/) is the use of a word for a concept with which the original concept behind this word is associated. Metonymy may be instructively contrasted with metaphor. Both figures involve the substitution of one term for another. While in metaphor, this substitution is based on similarity, in metonymy the substitution is based on contiguity. Metaphor - The ship plowed through the sea. Metonymy - The sails crossed the ocean. In cognitive linguistics, metonymy refers to the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity and is one of the basic characteristics of cognition. It is common for people to take one well-understood or easy-to-perceive aspect of something and use that aspect to stand either for the thing as a whole or for some other aspect or part of it. A few commonly used examples of metonymy are: Sweat = perspiration = hard work(metonymical); lend me thy ear.
[3] In Greek mythology, Circe or Kírkē (Greek Κίρκη, falcon), was a Queen goddess (or sometimesnymph or sorceress) living on the island of Aeaea. Circe transformed her enemies, or those who offended her, into animals through the use of magical potions. She was renowned for her knowledge of drugs and herbs.

[4]Frye's four essays between a "Polemical Introduction" and a "Tentative Conclusion." The four essays are titled "Historical Criticism: A Theory of Modes," "Ethical Criticism: a Theory of Symbols," "Archetypal Criticism: A Theory of myths," and "Rhetorical Criticism: A Theory of Genres."

[5] A femme fatale (plural: femmes fatales) is an alluring and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers in bonds of irresistible desire, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations. She is an archetypal character of literature and art.



Northrop Frye's Archetype of Literature from Dilip Barad

Tasks:

  • Give your responses to these questions in the minimum possible words in the COMMENT below this blog-post:

  1. What is Archetypal Criticism? What does the archetypal critic do?
  2. What is Frye trying prove by giving an analogy of ' Physics to Nature' and 'Criticism to Literature'?
  3. Share your views of Criticism as an organised body of knowledge. Mention relation of literature with history and philosophy.
  4. Briefly explain inductive method with illustration of Shakespeare's Hamlet's Grave Digger's scene.
  5. Briefly explain deductive method with reference to an analogy to Music, Painting, rhythm and pattern. Give examples of the outcome of deductive method.
  6. Refer to the Indian seasonal grid (below). If you can, please read small Gujarati or Hindi or English poem from the archetypal approach and apply Indian seasonal grid in the interpretation. 

http://goo.gl/forms/8BS39Ngg35


Indian Seasons


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  32. Nice post, my thoughts here are that communication has been over thought which results in nit picking when it comes to compartmentalizing. Literature, afterall, is about communication just as the ability to use other forms of medium and the simpler the better. Not everything should be analysed to this extent. Just an opinion.
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  33. It breaks my heart to know that people are hurting so badly that they are desperate to get their love lives back. For anyone hurting right now, I want you to worry no more for your Ex lover/partner will come back to you so you can feel whole again and I truly mean that. When my wife left me, Lord Zakuza was the man I contacted that helped me to get my wife back with his powerful spell within 48 hours and I can never forget the day I meant Lord Zakuza for he's spells perform GREAT MIRACLES. Get in touch with Lord Zakuza now for he's like a God on earth that can get your EX lover back within 48 hours with his powerful spell. You can go get in touch with him through his website via: https: lordzakuzaspells.com or Email via: Lordzakuza7 @ gmail. com or WhatsApp/ text via this number +1 740 573 9483.

    ReplyDelete
  34. I'm Tonia Anderson by name, I am from the States, Suffolk county to be precise. I am here today to testify of the good works LORD ZAKUZA has done in my life, I never knew great men still exist until I found him. I have been suffering from heart break for the past 3 years, my partner who I invested on cheated on me with my best friend on my matrimonial bed, I was yet to recover from this terrible shock and needed help to make him stop cheating. A friend of mine directed me to this spell caster called Lord Zakuza. I doubted him at first but as things went further, I had to give him my trust and I did exactly what he told me to do. Ever since then, I have been happy all my life and my love life with my partner has been so wonderful and all this happened within 48 hours of contacting Lord Zakuza.. You can also need his help for anything and here's his contact information's. Email: lordzakuza7 @ gmail. com and Website: lordzakuzaspells.com or Call/text/WhatsApp +1 (740) 573-9483.

    ReplyDelete
  35. After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647 blog: spiritualherbal.blogspot.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

    ReplyDelete
  36. My name is Kelvin JOhn, i live in UK. My life is back!!! After 2 years of Broken marriage, my wife left me with two kids, I felt like ending it all.I came across several testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back, some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and also spell to get a good paid job so on. He is amazing, i also came across one particular testimony, it was about a woman called Maria, she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 24 hours, and at the end of her testimony she dropped his email.After reading all these, I decided to give it a try. I contacted him via email and explained my problem to him. In just 24hours, my wife came back to me. We resolved our issues, and we are even happier than ever. Dr. Kibaki you are a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man. If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster, Try him anytime, he is the answer to your problems. You can also reach Dr. Kibaki on his email: drkibakisolutiontemple@gmail.com or call : +1 860 397-2711.

    ReplyDelete
  37. Wow this is awesome, very interesting article. I can imagine the energy and inspiration you have invested on this powerful combination of words. Many articles I come across these days do not really dive this deep to make it clear to their audience as you did. But believe me the way you interact is literally 100% perfect. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates you make on your blog and as well take the advantage to demonstrate
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    ReplyDelete
  38. To anyone out there who thinks love spells don't work, I’m here to tell you that Lord Zakuza love spell is the best and most powerful. I am a wealthy man who has lots of assets and possessions but I have difficulty with women. Whenever I try to settle down with any, we end up breaking up and I had no idea of why I was going through such an experience in my relationship. It was so worrying that I couldn’t be myself anymore and I started searching for help everywhere even at my place of work. I was going through my work activities online and I came across a testimony of a lady called ( Febe Anouk ) regarding how Lord Zakuza helped her to restore her relationship with his love spell, I had to give it a try because I needed my Ex lover back that I love so much. I visited Lord Zakuza website online and I told him everything I was going through. Lord Zakuza consoled me and promised to help me out with my situation by preparing a love spell for me. I followed the instructions given by him to me and within 48 hours, my Ex lover came looking for me and pleaded for forgiveness. Since I came in contact with Lord Zakuza, things have changed for good in my life and right now, I am married with two beautiful kids and my home is blessed. All thanks to Lord Zakuza I am forever thankful to you. Visit his website for any help via lordzakuzaspells.com or WhatsApp him on +1 740-573-9483. Try him and your life will be blessed.

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  40. Today makes it one years since Dr Kwale helped me with his powerful love spell to bring my man back to my arms. I’m really happy. In case you are depressed thinking of how to get back with your ex , I will kindly recommend Dr. Kwale to you now. Contact for Kwale via his email kwaletemple@gmail.com for his help.

    ReplyDelete

  41. This testimony is worth sharing to the world. I am here to tell the world of the good works of Dr BALBOSA. My name is Olivia Bolton am from the UK.. My man left me and my kids for another older woman. It was not so easy for me.. I love my husband so much and I did not lose hope and I kept praying and God finally answered my prayers...i searched online for a spell caster to help me unite me and my lover back forever and i saw so many testimonies of how DR BALBOSA has helped so many people online and i decided to give him a trial … I contacted him and explained to him. He told me not to worry that he will bring back my man within 24 hours. He consulted his powers and assured me not to worry . He did his work and cast the spell and to my greatest surprise, my husband came back the same day begging and crying just as Dr BALBOSA said. He begged me for forgiveness and he promised never to leave me for any reason. We are happy and we live together as one. Contact Dr BALBOSA now and be happy forever. dont lose hope and good luck..

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    ReplyDelete
  42. hello everyone My name is Frank Randazzo from mexico but base in  the united states ,i just want to share my testimony with the world on how Doctor HARRY Help me to enlarge my penis. Please read my good news carefully and i am sure it will affect your life positively on how you will also enlarge your pines,because i know some many people out there also need his help! I came across so many comments about Dr HARRY Penis Enlargement Medicine cream some weeks ago, on his website https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple   though I had really wanted my penis to be large, long and thick  because i was not able to have sex with my wife It was really affecting our marriage and my wife was about to divorce me. I had about 8.128cm – 3.2 inches before. Am really amazed on the fast results achieved within 7 days of using Dr. harry Penis Enlargement Medicine. It work and now I have got 22.87cm – 10.5 inches now. And my wife love it more now, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, This went on for a little period of about 14 days and to my surprise my wife keeps screaming that she love my big dick now. And my penis is now 11 inches long on erection and off course very large round. I am very happy for this Penis Enlargement experience. He can help with all kinds of cure you may need as follows Penis Enlargement Low sperm count Weak Erection diabetes type 1and 2 Herpes spell HIV spell Pregnancy spell Marriage for spell cancer ALS watering sperm womb fertilization penis erection witch craft attack s t d diseases internal heat swollen body low sperm count long time sickness kidney,heart,lungs,problem with doctor,Dr. HARRY you are in safe hands your healing is assured Email:   drharrysolution@gmail.com Website  https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple   Call or whatsapp +2349036417079 thanks      

    ReplyDelete
  43. My husband and I have been apart many years. This morning he sent me a text, 'Happy Mother's Day after Dr prince idialu spell,' for the first time in all these years I had grown accustomed to having my heart broken every year hoping he would acknowledge the day. This year after Dr prince idialu restoration spell things change just after 2 days of the spell, I kept myself from having the expectation of hearing from him. It blew me away and I burst into tears of thankfulness when I saw that Dr Prince had worked on his heart today he is back home happily now we are living together as one. Once again thank you Dr Prince for your help you are really what you said you are no relationship problem is impossible for you to fix. For more information or help contact him via: princeidialu@outlook.com or call or WhatsApp +1(504)603-3666 (Oklahoma)

    ReplyDelete
  44. I have been playing the lottery since i was 19 years and now i am 47 meaning i have been playing the lottery for 28 years. The biggest amount I have ever won in my life was 1200 bucks. But one day my story turns to history after I find this man's name on the Internet that he is the best when it comes to winning the lottery. This man is a very strong voodoo Dr who gives out the lottery winning numbers that can never fail. After all my years of laboring and struggling to win the lottery i finally won ($12,000,000) Dr Winner, is the name, EMAIL him now: (Winnersspellcast@gmail.com this is the only way to win the lottery and the best way via his website:https://winnersspellcast.blogspot.com) Call or text him: +2348138289852,,

    ReplyDelete
  45. hello everyone i am SOUTHGATE MORRISON from Manchester UK i want to tell the whole world of great dr HARRY herbal mixture i was unhappy ever since my girlfriend back then in college mocked me of having a small penis and weak in bed ,ever since then i have been trying to improve my sex life but all effort failed ..but it gut worse when i got married ,my wife is so angry with me and Threatened to leave me if i do not find a way and i love my wife so much so one faithful day i was reading some comments on a blog then i saw a comment of one MR GERARD PETE FROM new Orleans testifying of how dr HARRY helped him enlarge his penis and Fertilise his sperm count so i quickly contacted him by his website link http://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple and he got back to me and i did as he said ..to my greatest surprise i got 10 inches within two weeks of using his herbal medicine and now its just 3 weeks i am having 10.5 inches i am so happy now..my wife told me am so good in bed that i almost killed her last night all thanks to him note he also cure sicknesses and diseases like PENIS ENLARGEMENTERECTILE DYSFUNCTIONDIABETES type 1 and type 2HERPES GENITAL WARTLOW SPERM COUNTWEAK ERECTIONBREAST ENLARGEMENTPROSTRATE CANCERHIV/AIDSPREMATURE EJACULATION so if you need his help contact him on his email drharrysolution@gmail.com visit his site http://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple or whatsapp him on +2349036417079 thanks

    ReplyDelete
  46. I can't stop thanking Lord Zakuza for helping me bring back my girlfriend that left me for another man at her workplace.. I was shocked when she broke up with me and I needed help but everything I did to recover her back did not work. If not for the intervention of Lord Zakuza who I met online, I wouldn't have gotten back my girlfriend because Lord Zakuza prepared a love spell that brought her back to me within 48 hours. I love my girlfriend and I'm happy getting her back again. Thank you Lord Zakuza and I promise to share my experience with you to everybody so that anyone that needs help in any way can also get help too for you are a good and wonderful man that God has sent to help those who need help.. Here's his contact information just in case you need any help from him. WhatsApp/call number +1 (740) 573-9483 or Email: Lordzakuza7@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  47. I have been divorced for a few years. I went back to work fulltime after being a homemaker for many years. I could only find temporary jobs. My husband had been the breadwinner for our family but lost his lucrative job. Before we had marriage trouble, I had been the money manager for our family and included tithing and giving money toward our pastor's vision in our spending plan. I believed that the blessing of God was on my husband. When my husband started managing the family's finances, they changed from our finances to his finances. my husband left me . I have be suffering until I meet a post where this great spell caster DR PRINCE IDIALU who have helped so many people to restore their marriages and I decided to give him a try to help me bring my Husband home and believe me I just send my picture and full name with my date of birth to him and that of my husband and after 2 days as he has promised me though my husband came back before the 2days complete, my husband drove home by his self apologizing I should forgive him, now my husband has show me love more than ever I am happy knowing DR PRINCE IDIALU I went from giving coins to now giving much larger amounts. DR PRINCE you are really what you said you are thank you once again for help or more info you can reach him." princeidialu@outlook.com or call or WhatsApp +1(504)603-3666) (Oklahoma).,...

    ReplyDelete
  48. hello everyone i am SOUTHGATE MORRISON from Manchester UK  i want to tell the whole world of great  dr HARRY herbal mixture i was unhappy ever since my girlfriend back then in college mocked me of having a small penis and weak in bed ,ever since then i have been trying to improve my sex life but all effort failed ..but it gut worse when i got married ,my wife is so angry with me and Threatened to leave me if i do not find a way and i love my wife so much so one faithful day i was reading some comments on a blog then i saw a comment of one MR GERARD PETE FROM new Orleans testifying of how dr HARRY  helped him enlarge his penis and Fertilise his sperm count so i quickly contacted him by his website link http://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple   and he got back to me and i did as he said ..to my greatest surprise i got 10 inches within two weeks of using his herbal medicine and now its just 3 weeks i am having 10.5 inches i am so happy now..my wife told me am so good in bed that i almost killed her last night all thanks to him note he also cure sicknesses and diseases like PENIS ENLARGEMENTERECTILE DYSFUNCTIONDIABETES type 1 and type 2HERPES GENITAL WARTLOW SPERM COUNTWEAK ERECTIONBREAST ENLARGEMENTPROSTRATE CANCERHIV/AIDSPREMATURE EJACULATION  so if you need his help contact him on his email drharrysolution@gmail.com  visit his site   http://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple    or whatsapp him on +2349036417079   thanks 

    ReplyDelete
  49. Life has not been easy with me after my marriage was broken when my husband filled for a divorced but I thank God for using Lord Zakuza who's like a God on Earth to get my broken marriage restored with his powerful spell. I suffered for depression for 6 months but today, I am so happy for getting to know Lord Zakuza for his spell has really made me to believe that of a truth spells are real and they work. I adhered to every bit of instructions given to me by Lord Zakuza for he promised me that he will make me happy and proud and really, all that happened and my husband came back to me with his knees on the ground begging me for forgiveness within 48 hours after I got in touch with him and now we are perfectly bonded again for life. I can boldly say to everyone out there that Lord Zakuza spells is really the best and most powerful. I'm forever grateful to him till the end of time. So, you can get connected with him on this number +1 (740) 573-9483 via WhatsApp/Call or Email via: Lordzakuza7@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
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