Tuesday 31 January 2023

Modern Theories of Criticism: An Overview

Modern Theories of Criticism: An Overview

[Note: This presentation and video recording are of Prof. Dilip Barad's session in the Refresher Course for College / University teachers. The Refresher Course was organised by UGC-HRDC, University of Mumbai.]

Modern Literary Theory and Criticism refers to the examination and interpretation of literature using various theoretical frameworks that emerged in the 20th century. This approach encompasses diverse schools of thought such as Marxist, Feminist, Psychoanalytic, and Deconstructionist theory that offer a critical lens to analyze literary texts and reveal their deeper meanings and societal impact. The purpose of this introduction is to provide a comprehensive overview of the key concepts, influential figures, and historical developments in Modern Literary Theory and Criticism, highlighting its significance and impact in the field of literary studies.

Literary criticism, the evaluation and interpretation of literature, is an important aspect of literary studies. Over the years, various theories of criticism have emerged, each offering a unique perspective on the reading and interpretation of literature. This presentation outlines some of the major theories of criticism, starting from Matthew Arnold’s “A Study of Poetry” (1888) and T.S. Eliot’s “Tradition and Individual Talent” (1919) to the latest theories of digital humanities.

The earliest theories of criticism include the works of I.A. Richards, who presented the practical criticism approach in his book “Practical Criticism” (1929). William Empson’s “Seven Types of Ambiguity” (1930) also played a significant role in the development of criticism. Later, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley introduced the concepts of intentional and affective fallacies in their work.

In the 1930s, Allen Tate introduced the theory of “tension” in poetry, which dealt with the extension (literal meaning) and intension (metaphorical meaning) of a text. Cleanth Brooks, in his works “The Language of Paradox, The Well Wrought Urn” (1947) and “Modern Poetry and the Tradition” (1939), focused on the language of paradox in poetry.

Archetypal criticism, which is concerned with the study of archetypes and symbols in literature, was developed by Maud Bodkin (1934) and Northrop Frye (1940-50). Frye’s theory of the mythos grid, which outlines the universal themes and patterns in literature, is an important contribution to the field of archetypal criticism.

In the latter half of the 20th century, structuralism and semiotics gave rise to stylistics, which deals with the study of style in literature. Deconstruction and poststructuralism, as propounded by Jacques Derrida, also had a major impact on the field of criticism. 

Eco-criticism, which looks at the relationship between literature and the environment, and eco-feminism, which critiques the patriarchal values embedded in society, also gained prominence.

Postcolonialism, which deals with the study of the cultural, political and economic effects of colonialism, was developed by thinkers like Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, and Homi Bhabha. In recent times, the focus has shifted to globalization and climate change, which has given rise to contemporary theories of cultural studies.

Digital Humanities, a field that uses technology to analyze and process literary texts, has also emerged as a significant area of study. The rise of generative literature, where texts are produced by computers, has raised new challenges for critics. The principles and processes of generative literature have been outlined by Jean-Pierre Balpe. The use of AI in digital humanities has raised questions about unconscious bias and the morality of robots, which require further study.

In conclusion, the field of criticism has undergone several transformations over the years, each adding to our understanding of literature. From the earliest works of Arnold and Eliot to the latest theories of digital humanities, the field has constantly evolved to keep pace with changing times. The new challenges posed by AI and the increasing influence of technology on the field only serve to emphasize the ongoing relevance of criticism in our rapidly changing world.


Video Recording of the Session:

ChatGPT in Literature Classroom - Waiting for Godot

The Use of ChatGPT in English Literature Classroom: Teaching 'Waiting for Godot'

As technology continues to play a larger role in our daily lives, it's not surprising that it has also made its way into the classroom. At Department of English, M K Bhavnagar University, we decided to experiment with ChatGPT, a large language model developed by OpenAI, as a teaching tool in our English literature class in teaching 'Waiting for Godot'. While many educators might be concerned that using AI in the classroom could lead to students becoming overly reliant on technology and cheating, our approach was to use ChatGPT in a way that encouraged critical thinking and independent learning.

We designed worksheets that tested students' abilities to interpret and analyze works of literature. Rather than providing direct answers to questions, we asked students to respond to questions that even ChatGPT couldn't answer accurately. For example, students were asked to reflect on why a few leaves grow on a barren tree in a play, if European nations can be inferred from the names of characters, the significance of a conversation between two characters in different acts, and the meaning of certain terms used in a character's speech.

The worksheet:

The goal of this exercise was to help students develop their own interpretations and opinions, rather than relying solely on the answers provided by ChatGPT. By cross-checking with original texts and coming up with their own answers, students were able to gain a deeper understanding of the literature and develop their critical thinking skills.

Of course, this approach wouldn't be suitable for all types of courses or learning environments, but in the context of a literature class, it can be an effective way to encourage independent learning and critical thinking. By using technology in a way that supports these goals, rather than replacing human understanding, we can help students become more engaged and confident learners.

In conclusion, our experiment with ChatGPT in the English department at M K Bhavnagar University has shown that technology can be a valuable tool in the classroom, as long as it's used in a way that supports students' critical thinking and independent learning. By asking students to respond to questions that even ChatGPT couldn't answer accurately, we were able to encourage them to think deeply about literature and develop their own interpretations and opinions.

Learning Outcomes:

The learning outcomes of this experiment with ChatGPT in the classroom could be aligned with various levels of Bloom's Taxonomy, including:

  1. Remembering: Students were able to recall details and themes from the play, "Waiting for Godot."

  2. Understanding: Students demonstrated understanding of the play by analyzing characters and their motivations, interpreting symbols and motifs, and making connections to historical and cultural contexts.

  3. Applying: Students applied their knowledge by answering questions about the play, such as explaining the meaning of terms used in Lucky's speech.

  4. Analyzing: Students analyzed the conversation between Vladimir and the Boy in both Acts, evaluating the significance of their interactions.

  5. Evaluating: Students evaluated the suggestion that suicide is a better solution to the tramp's predicament than waiting.

  6. Creating: Students engaged in creative thinking by offering their own interpretations of the play and connecting it to Sartre's concept of "Bad Faith."

Through this experiment, students were challenged to use higher-level thinking skills and engage with the material in a more meaningful and critical way. The design of the worksheets allowed students to rely on their own interpretations, encouraging independent thinking and intellectual growth.

Monday 30 January 2023

Research Publication Guidelines for the Beginners

 Research Publication: Guidelines for the Beginners

Publishing a Research Paper: A Step-by-Step Guide

Writing a research paper is a critical part of an academic career. Whether you are presenting it in a seminar, conference, or sending it for peer review, it is important to understand the process of publishing a research paper. In this article, we will discuss the typical steps involved in publishing a research paper, so you can get your work out there and make a lasting impact on your field of study.

1. Identifying the research area 

The first step in publishing a research paper is identifying the area you want to focus on. This requires you to reflect on your interests and expertise, and decide on a topic that aligns with your goals.

2. Deciding on a topic for research paper

Once you have identified the research area, the next step is to decide on a specific topic for your research paper. You need to choose a topic that is both relevant and meaningful, and that you have enough knowledge and experience to write about.

3. Problem statement or question to be answered
Next, you need to frame a problem statement or a question to be answered through your research. This will provide the foundation for your research, and help you stay focused throughout the process.

4. Literature Review
Once you have framed the problem statement or question, you need to conduct a comprehensive literature review. This involves reviewing existing research in your area of study, and identifying gaps in the current knowledge.

5. Methods and Methodology
The next step is to determine the methods and methodology you will use in your research. Method refers to the technique used to collect and organize data, such as fieldwork, questionnaires, and databases. Methodology refers to the critical approach used to interpret the data collected, including the political position and interpretive strategies of the researcher.

6. Critical Analysis and Interpretation
After collecting and analyzing the data, you need to critically evaluate the findings and draw conclusions. This includes interpreting the results and drawing insights from the data.

7. Conclusion
Finally, you need to summarize your findings and provide recommendations for future research in your conclusion. This is your opportunity to demonstrate the significance of your research, and to provide insights into the broader implications of your findings.

8. Choosing a Journal
Once your research paper is complete, the next step is to choose a suitable journal for publishing your work. This involves considering factors such as the scope and focus of the journal, and the audience you want to reach.

9. Writing your paper
The next step is to write your paper, following the guidelines and format of the chosen journal. This involves organizing your research and presenting it in a clear and concise manner.

10. Making your submission
Once you have written your paper, you need to make a formal submission to the journal. This involves following the submission guidelines, including providing an abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.

11. Navigating the peer review process
The peer review process involves having your paper reviewed by experts in your field. This is an important step in the publication process, as it helps ensure the quality and validity of your work.

12. The production process
Finally, once your paper has been reviewed and accepted for publication, the final step is the production process. This involves working with the journal to prepare your paper for publication, including finalizing the format and layout, and incorporating any revisions or corrections recommended by the reviewer.

In conclusion, publishing a research paper involves a series of steps that require careful planning and attention to detail. By following these steps, you can ensure that your research is communicated effectively and reaches the right audience.
ALA, A. (2011, October 10). Publication Guidelines and Procedures [Text]. Public Library Association (PLA). https://www.ala.org/pla/resources/publications/publish/guide
APA, A. (n.d.). Research and publication. Https://Apastyle.Apa.Org. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/research-publication
Nature, S. (n.d.). Submission guidelines | Scientific Reports. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from https://www.nature.com/srep/author-instructions/submission-guidelines
OpenEdition, A. (2022, November 28). Guidelines for Submission and Publication of Manuscripts [Text]. Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais; ​​Centro de Estudos Sociais da Universidade de Coimbra. https://journals.openedition.org/rccs/4612
Patwardhan, B. (2015). Guidelines for Research Publications. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.4005.7768
PLOS, A. (2020, September 16). Understanding the Publishing Process. PLOS. https://plos.org/resource/understanding-the-publishing-process/
TandF, A. (n.d.). How to publish your research. Author Services. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from https://authorservices.taylorandfrancis.com/publishing-your-research/


Video Recording:

This video is about a workshop on research methodology organized by the Postgraduate Department of English at DAV College in Chandigarh. The workshop was attended by around 70 participants who were mostly Master's students. The speaker in the video, Professor Dilip Barad, is a guest speaker and is sharing his views on research publication guidelines for beginners. He explains that the first step in publishing a research article or research paper is writing a research paper and the participants are given a small activity to identify a research area and topic. He then moves on to the second and third steps of reading the research paper in seminars, conferences or sending it for peer review and publishing it as a research article.

Sunday 22 January 2023

Objectives for using ChatGPT in literature classroom


Objectives for using ChatGPT in literature classroom

As we delve deeper into the realm of AI-generated language, it becomes increasingly important for educators and students alike to familiarize themselves with the capabilities and limitations of such technologies. By getting a grasp of these tools while they are still in their nascent stages, we can better understand and utilize them in the future. The potential of AI-generated language is vast and rapidly growing, much like a snowball gathering momentum as it rolls down a mountain. With this in mind, we have begun incorporating ChatGPT into our classroom activities.

With this sole objective, we started integrating ChatGPT in classroom activities.

From our observations thus far, we have discovered the following: 1. ChatGPT generates English language responses without any grammar or spelling errors. This is quite astounding and raises the question of whether traditional grammar instruction will be necessary in the future. 2. ChatGPT can also generate multiple choice questions and provide correct answers. While not all of the responses may be factually accurate, they are grammatically correct. 3. ChatGPT is able to produce responses in a tabular format, which is incredibly useful for teachers in organizing and structuring their lesson plans. It would be even more remarkable if it could generate infographics and mind-maps in the future. 4. ChatGPT functions similarly to a chess partner, providing thought-provoking answers as one continues to pose it questions. This makes it an excellent tool for those seeking a partner to think about ideas, to reflect on the act of thinking itself, or to engage in meaningful activities instead of idle gossip. 5. The integration of ChatGPT in the classroom has opened up a plethora of new possibilities for teaching and learning.

The Objectives for Using ChatGPT in Literature Classroom

Enhancing comprehension: 

ChatGPT can be used to generate questions and prompts that help students better understand the literature they are reading by encouraging them to analyze, interpret, and evaluate the text.

Encouraging critical thinking: 

ChatGPT can be used as a tool to help develop critical thinking skills in students. One way to do this is by using the model to generate prompts or questions that require students to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information. Additionally, ChatGPT can be used to create simulated scenarios or debates where students must use critical thinking skills to make decisions or arguments. By working through these types of activities, students can learn to think more critically and logically, and develop their ability to evaluate and analyze information.

As mentioned, ChatGPT can be used to generate prompts that require students to think critically about the literature, such as by evaluating the author's use of symbolism or analyzing the themes of the text.

It is important to note that while ChatGPT can be a useful tool in developing critical thinking, it is not a replacement for human instruction and guidance. The teacher should facilitate and guide the critical thinking process.

Improving writing skills: 

ChatGPT can be used to provide feedback on student writing, such as essays or creative writing, and provide suggestions for improvement.

Enhancing vocabulary: 

ChatGPT can be used to generate vocabulary lists or quizzes that are specific to the literature being studied, helping students to improve their vocabulary and gain a deeper understanding of the text.

Supporting independent learning: 

ChatGPT can be used to provide additional resources, such as summaries or explanations, to support students who are working independently or studying on their own.

Make aware of the potential errors in AI generated responses: 

ChatGPT can be used to make students aware of the potential errors that AI-generated responses can make. One way to do this is by having students compare the responses generated by ChatGPT to those of a human and identify any differences or errors. This can be done by having students compare the responses of ChatGPT to those of a teacher or a credible source, or by having them evaluate the coherence, accuracy, and relevance of the responses.

Another way to use ChatGPT to make students aware of the errors AI generated responses can make is by using the model in a controlled environment, where the teacher can introduce certain errors and students have to identify them. Additionally, students can be given the chance to improve upon the AI generated responses, this will help them understand the limitations of AI and how to improve upon it.

It is also important for the teacher to explain the limitations of the model, such as its lack of understanding of context and background knowledge, to help students understand why the model may make errors.

The Worksheets:

Friday 13 January 2023

Open AI Generated Literature - ChatGPT


OpenAI is an AI research and deployment company. Our mission is to ensure that artificial general intelligence benefits all of humanity.

OpenAI’s mission is to ensure that artificial general intelligence (AGI)—by which they mean highly autonomous systems that outperform humans at most economically valuable work—benefits all of humanity.

ChatGPT: Optimizing Language Models for Dialogue

OpenAI explains ChatGPT as - 
"We’ve trained a model called ChatGPT which interacts in a conversational way. The dialogue format makes it possible for ChatGPT to answer followup questions, admit its mistakes, challenge incorrect premises, and reject inappropriate requests. ChatGPT is a sibling model to InstructGPT, which is trained to follow an instruction in a prompt and provide a detailed response.

Click here to try ChatGPT 

Sample of Literature generated over ChatGPT

Prompt: Please generate a Poem on Waiting for Godot

In fields of barren earth we wait 
For Godot, who we hope is fate 
Our lives a constant holding pattern 
As we long for something to happen

We pass the hours in idle chatter 

As we ponder what does or does not matter 

Our existence a question mark 

As we sit in the dark

We wait for a sign, a word, a clue 

But nothing comes, and nothing is new 

We wait for Godot, but he never arrives 

Leaving us with nothing but our own lives

We wonder if we've been forgotten 

If Godot is a lie, a cruel hoax 

But still we wait, with hope unbroken 

For the day when our wait is over, and we can finally take stock

Of what we've gained, and what we've lost 
In this waiting game at any cost 
But until then, we'll sit and stare 
At the empty horizon, and wait for Godot to be there.

Prompt: Generate a poem on Existentialism

Existence, a question deep and true,
A search for meaning, all life must pursue.
A quest for answers, in a world so vast,
A search for purpose, that will forever last.

We wander through life, with no final goal,
No certain destination, no fixed role.
We make our own paths, in this endless game,
And seek our own answers, to life's eternal flame.

We question our being, in this endless quest,
And wonder what it all means, above all the rest.
Is there a purpose, in this mortal coil,
Or are we just a fleeting thought, in a cosmic toil?

Existence is a puzzle, that we must solve,
And find our own purpose, in the grand revolve.
So let us seek, and let us find,
The answers to the questions, that weigh on our mind.

For in this search, we may find our way,
And in this journey, our souls will sway.
And though the answers may be hard to see,
Existence, is a journey, that sets us free.

Prompt: Generate a poem on Vladimir and Estragon

Vladimir and Estragon, two friends so true
Together they wandered, nothing else to do
Through fields of waiting, with nothing in sight
They talked and joked, to pass the long night

They dreamed of Godot, a savior to come
But day after day, he never arrived, just some
They bantered and bickered, but always made up
Their friendship unbreakable, in a world corrupt

They saw the world as a waiting room
Where nothing happens, and nothing can bloom
But in each other's company, they found solace
And the beauty in their friendship, was all they needed to endorse

Vladimir and Estragon, in a world so grim
Their bond unbroken, forever intertwined.

Prompt: Generate a poem on Lucky and Pozzo

Lucky and Pozzo, two men so strange
One strong and silent, the other in range
Of constant chatter, a never-ending flow
Together they trudge, with a heavy load

Pozzo the master, Lucky his slave
Bound by a rope, their fates they pave
A journey through life, with purpose unclear
But onward they go, with no hint of fear

Lucky's mind is blank, but Pozzo's is filled
With thoughts and ideas, yet never stilled
He talks and he talks, but says nothing true
While Lucky just drags, his strength never through

But in this strange duo, a bond is formed
A friendship unlikely, yet ever warm
For though they may seem, two men apart
Together they journey, with a steady heart

So let us all learn, from Lucky and Pozzo
That in life's great journey, there's always a combo
Of two very different, yet perfectly fit
Together they make the story, a perfect script.

Prompt: Generate Micro-fiction on 'Waiting for Godot'

1. Estragon and Vladimir sat on the barren stage, waiting for the arrival of Godot. They passed the time by bickering and reminiscing about their past, but deep down they both knew that Godot would never come. They were trapped in a never-ending cycle of hope and disappointment, but they couldn't bring themselves to leave. 
They couldn't leave because the thought of leaving meant acknowledging that their entire existence was for nothing. So they waited, and waited, for a Godot that would never arrive.

2. Estragon and Vladimir sat on the barren wasteland, waiting for the mysterious Godot. They had been waiting for days, but he never came. As they passed the time, they reflected on the futility of their existence and the purpose of their waiting. They were trapped in a never-ending cycle of hope and disappointment. They couldn't help but wonder, was Godot even real? Or were they just waiting for nothing? They decided to wait a little longer, just in case.

Prompt: Generate micro-fiction on Lucky and Pozzo

Lucky and Pozzo were an odd pair, one a tall and lanky man, the other a short and rotund one. They trudged along the dusty road, Pozzo tugging Lucky along by a rope tied around his neck. They had been traveling together for what felt like an eternity, and had long since run out of things to say to each other. But they were bound by something deeper than words, a sense of dependence and fate that kept them moving forward, step by step. They knew that wherever the road led them, they would go together, for better or for worse.

Prompt: Generate a Sonnet on Albert Camus's Myth of Sisyphus

The weight of life, a boulder on his back,
Sisyphus pushes on, with weary tread.
Eternal labor, with no turning track,
No end in sight, no hope to be ahead.

Yet, in this struggle, he finds a release,
A freedom in the toil, a strange delight.
For in this endless cycle, he finds peace,
In knowing that his fate is out of sight.

So too, we all must bear our own weight,
The struggles that define our mortal days.
But in our labors, we too can find fate,
A purpose in the endless, endless ways.

Thus, let us embrace the myth of Sisyphus,
And find our own meaning in life's endless fuss.

Prompt: Generate a Sonnet on Existentialism

Existence is a puzzle, a mystery untold,
A quest for meaning in a world so cold.
We search for purpose in a life so fleeting,
A reason to be here, a point worth meeting.

We question all that is, and all that's not,
We wonder why we're here, and what our lot.
We struggle with our doubts, our fears, our plight,
And seek to find a way to make things right.

But in our search for answers, we may find,
That life is not a quest with a clear guide.
That meaning is a choice, a state of mind,
And that our purpose is to be defined.

So let us live our lives with open hearts,
And find our own way in these existential parts.

Prompt: Generate a Heroic Couplet on Existentialism

"Existence is our plight, our lonely fight,
To find meaning in a world void of light."

Prompt: Generate a micro-fiction on Myth of Manasa Devi

Mansa Devi, goddess of snakes and wishes, was said to reside in the temple on the top of the mountain. Pilgrims would trek the treacherous path to make offerings and ask for her blessings.

One day, a poor farmer named Hanuman made the journey. He had lost his entire crop to a swarm of locusts and had nothing left to feed his family. Desperate, he prayed to Mansa Devi for a miracle.

As he reached the temple, a strange thing happened. A giant serpent appeared before him and whispered, "I am Mansa Devi. I have heard your prayers. I will grant you one wish, but you must promise to use it wisely."

Hanuman thought for a moment and said, "I wish for enough food to feed my family for a year."

The serpent nodded and disappeared. When Hanuman returned home, he found his fields bursting with bountiful crops. He kept his promise to the goddess, sharing his abundance with the less fortunate.

Word of Hanuman's miracle spread, and soon more and more people made the pilgrimage to the temple, hoping to receive Mansa Devi's blessings. And the goddess, pleased with Hanuman's kindness, continued to grant wishes to those who were pure of heart.

Prompt: Generate a micro-fiction on The Great Gatsby

"He threw lavish parties, yet remained an enigma. She fell for him, despite his shady past. In the end, their love was doomed by his obsession with the green light across the water. The Great Gatsby, a tragic tale of love and wealth."

Prompt: Generate teaching activities on Amitav Ghosh's novel 'Gun Island'

  1. Summarize the plot of Gun Island in your own words and discuss the themes that Ghosh explores in the novel.
  2. Write a character analysis of one of the main characters in the novel, such as Deen or Rafi.
  3. Discuss the role of mythology and folklore in the novel and how it informs the characters' understanding of their world.
  4. Compare and contrast Gun Island with another novel by Amitav Ghosh, such as The Hungry Tide or The Glass Palace.
  5. Create a map of the locations mentioned in the novel, including the places in India, Bangladesh, and Venice. Mark important events and trace the journey of the characters.
  6. Write a conversation between two characters from the novel, such as Deen and Rafi, or Deen and Piya.
  7. Write an essay on the novel, focusing on the narrative structure and how it contributes to the novel's overall meaning.
  8. Create a visual representation (such as a collage, or a painting) inspired by some of the key scenes and symbols in the novel.
  9. Host a book club discussion on Gun Island and lead the conversation on the themes and characters
  10. Research on the Gun trade and culture and compare it with the representation in the novel and write a analysis paper.

Write a research paper on teaching English literature

I'm sorry, I am not able to write a research paper as I am a AI language model but I can provide you with an outline of what a research paper on teaching English literature might include and some key points you might consider.

Title: "Effective Strategies for Teaching English Literature in the 21st Century Classroom"

This research paper aims to explore and examine effective strategies for teaching English literature in the 21st century classroom. The paper will begin by providing a brief overview of the current state of English literature education, highlighting the challenges faced by educators in the digital age. The paper will then delve into various teaching strategies that have been proven to be effective in the classroom, such as the use of technology, inclusive teaching practices, and the incorporation of student-centered learning. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the importance of cultural and historical context in the interpretation of literature. Finally, the paper will conclude by providing recommendations for future research in the field of English literature education.


  • Introduce the topic of teaching English literature in the 21st century classroom
  • Provide a brief overview of the current state of English literature education
  • Highlight the challenges faced by educators in the digital age
  • State the main research question and the objectives of the paper
Literature Review:

  • Discuss the current state of English literature education
  • Examine the challenges faced by educators in the digital age
  • Provide a summary of the existing research on teaching strategies for English literature

  • Describe the research methods used in the study
  • Explain the data collection and analysis methods
  • Describe the participants of the study

  • Present the main findings of the study
  • Discuss the effectiveness of the teaching strategies used in the study
  • Provide evidence to support the findings

  • Discuss the implications of the findings for English literature education
  • Provide recommendations for future research in the field

  • Summarize the main findings of the paper
  • Restate the research question and the objectives of the paper
  • Provide a final conclusion on the effective strategies for teaching English literature in the 21st century classroom.

  • List the sources cited in the paper
  • Use a recognized citation style (e.g. MLA, APA, Chicago)
  • Note: This is just a basic outline and the research paper should be more elaborative and detailed with evidence and examples. Also, it is important to note that this is not a complete research paper and should not be used as such. It's important to conduct your own research and gather your own evidence and examples when writing a research paper.