Wednesday 28 January 2015

Research Methodology Workshop Handout

This handout is drafted with a view to help research scholars who in search of research topic. Once the research topic/area is identified, the another step is to convert it into an argument. This is very difficult phase and requires a lot of thinking. The second part of this handout has some 10 indicators to help scholars to turn research topic into an argument. The third part of this handout helps in preparing first draft of research proposal.

Deciding on a Research Topic (Owens, 2010):

One of the points to stress at the outset is that the range of possible research topics in literature is very wide indeed. Despite this, or perhaps because of this, students occasionally find it difficult to make up their minds what it is they want to investigate. If you feel, momentarily, that you can’t decide what might interest you, you could try making a list of things that you would like to learn more about. Once you have a list of up to five or six things, you should take some time to read around each of them a bit, trying to think not only which seems most enticing and likely to hold your interest, but which of them your previous study has best equipped you to pursue. By ‘reading around’, I do not mean reading aimlessly, or in a desultory fashion. On the contrary, you should be reading quickly and purposively, with questions in your mind, scanning material that seems potentially relevant to your areas of interest and getting an overview of it. The questions you should be asking include:

Answer to these questions with reference to your research interest:
What are some of the key studies in this field?



What kinds of approaches have been taken to the subject?



What are the key issues and questions in this field?



Are there any possible gaps, or approaches yet to be explored?
(Digital Humanities, Film Studies, Cultural Studies, Globalization, postcoloniality, Study of controversies in literature, banned books, retellings, teaching literature, teaching criticism, teaching literary theories, study of censorship, sci-fi, self-help, electronic/digital literature, realism - social/virtual)




Having decided on your topic and limited its scope, the next step is to give it a direction. The way to do this is to develop out of your topic a set of questions you want to answer, or problems that you want to solve. Doing research is not about gathering information or data for its own sake: the information or data
is presented in order to answer questions, in order to try to change what is thought about something. Virtually every good dissertation will take the form of an argument, of an attempt to prove or establish something by means of presentation and analysis of evidence.
There are many possible ways of turning a topic into an argument. To give some examples, your dissertation might be one of the following:
Based on the research topic selected above, draft an argument with the help of below given indicators
an argument for or against an existing critic (or critical position) in relation to the author or group of works you are studying

an argument about the importance of a particular influence on a writer, or influence exerted by him or her

an argument for the importance of some hitherto little-regarded
piece of evidence to the discussion of the work of some author or group of authors

an argument about the value of a new theoretical approach to a text or set of texts

an argument turning upon the nature of the genre of a work or group of works

an argument about the significance of a little-known
or undervalued author or work;

an argument about some historical or literary-historical
aspect of literature

an argument about the adequacy of existing scholarly texts of a particular work;

an argument showing how a particular theme or concept may be related to a group of texts;

an argument bringing together some aspect of a well-known
literary text with a lesser-known text or with other media.

Assuming that you have an idea for a possible research project that is sufficiently tightly defined so that it is do-able in the time and space available, and further assuming that you have checked that you can get access to the necessary materials, you will usually need to write a research proposal for approval by your
tutor or supervisor.
Think of it as an exercise in persuasion:
you are trying to convince your tutor or supervisor that you have evidence (although as yet unexploited) to support the argument you propose to advance. You should present it in continuous prose, but arranged under a set of headings such as the following.
Based on the research topic selected and argument developed in above activity, write first draft of your research proposal on the line of indicators given below:
Title: Do not feel bound by this: it is important to have a title that is
clear and informative, but a first attempt can be altered in the
finished product

Argument: State as concisely as possible what your subject is and what your argument will be.

Materials: Go into more detail about your materials, i.e. the chief primary and secondary sources you will use and discuss, giving some indication as to their aptness for your project, and how easy it will be to get hold of them.

Chapters[1]: Show how you think your discussion of your topic may be organised, chapter by chapter, in the final product. This provisional chapter structure is very important, so make sure it is clear to the reader how many chapters there are going to be, what is going to go into each, how they will connect with each other, and how long each is planned to be. If possible, give provisional chapter titles

Conclusion: Clearly, this will be provisional at this stage. You have not yet argued your case, merely outlined the materials and likely directions of your argument. You might also like to indicate at this stage what problems you think you might encounter along the way.

Bibliography: A list of the key primary and secondary texts you intend using should be appended to the proposal – though, again, this list will be provisional and will certainly expand once you begin serious work.

Work Cited

Owens, W. R. (2010). Planning, Writing, and Presenting a Dissertation or Thesis. In D. D. Correa, & W. R. Owens, The Handbook to Literary Research (second ed., pp. 187-203). Oxon, New York, Canada, USA: Rourledge.

[1] You should be alluding throughout this section to the main secondary literature on your subject (historical, critical, theoretical, etc.), not just to demonstrate that you are aware of it, but to indicate how you might use it. So, for example, you might be planning to take issue with what some critic has said, or you may want to show how your work relates to, and perhaps extends or qualifies, some existing scholarship on your subject.

Saturday 24 January 2015

Introduction to Education and Technology

Introduction to Education, Technology and ELT

This blog is based on the classroom discussion of the below given presentation, videos and images.

  • Reading Resources: 
  • Presentation 1: Education and Technology

Introduction to Education and Technology from Dilip Barad

  • Video 2:Sugata Mitra: School in the cloud- SOLE

  • Video 3: Sugata Mitra: Future of Learning

  • Video 4:Salman Khan: Let's use video to reinvent education

    Video 5: Marc Prensky: Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Video 6: David Crystal: The Effect of New Technologies on Engish: Video 7: David Crystal: The Biggest Challange for English Language Teachers in the times of Internet: Video 8: David Crystal: Texting is 'Good' for English Language
  • Image 1:

  • Image 2:

  • Image 3: 

  • Image 4: (Removed)

  • Image 5: 
  • Image 6: 

  • Image 7: 


    Quiz 1:

      Monday 12 January 2015

      Presentation and Quiz on Aravind Adiga's 'The White Tiger'

      Worksheet, Presentation, Tasks and Quiz on 'The White Tiger'

      Narratology: The Study of Narrative Technique

      Master-Slave Morality

      Master-slave morality




      Before you appear in the quiz or respond to the tasks, view this presentation. It may help you in answering several questions.

      Literary Appreciation of 'The White Tiger' by dilipbarad on Scribd


      Respond to these questions in the comment section below this post (preferably, post link of your blog/s):
      • How far do you agree with the India represented in the novel The White Tiger?
      • Do you believe that Balram's story is the archetype of all stories of 'rags to riches'?
      • "Language bears within itself the necessity of its own critique, deconstructive criticism aims to show that any text inevitably undermines its own claims to have a determinate meaning, and licences the reader to produce his own meanings out of it by an activity of semantic 'freeplay' (Derrida, 1978, in Lodge, 1988, p. 108). Is it possible to do deconstructive reading of The White Tiger? How?
      • With ref to screening of select scenes of Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire in today's class:
        Write a blog on similarities between The White Tiger and Slumdog Millionaire. Include following points:
        1. Narrative structure - Wanted Poster # KBC show
        2. Indianness
        3. List of questions asked in the film. If you have to replace or add a few questions, which questions would you like to add. Remember, questions shall be in-tune with the screenplay of the film .
        4. On what grounds can u deconstruct the film with reference to post colonial tools / theories.
        5. Compare with Texture and Treatment of subject content in film and novel.


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