Showing posts with label online. Show all posts
Showing posts with label online. Show all posts

Tuesday 31 January 2023

Modern Theories of Criticism: An Overview

Modern Theories of Criticism: An Overview

[Note: This presentation and video recording are of Prof. Dilip Barad's session in the Refresher Course for College / University teachers. The Refresher Course was organised by UGC-HRDC, University of Mumbai.]

Modern Literary Theory and Criticism refers to the examination and interpretation of literature using various theoretical frameworks that emerged in the 20th century. This approach encompasses diverse schools of thought such as Marxist, Feminist, Psychoanalytic, and Deconstructionist theory that offer a critical lens to analyze literary texts and reveal their deeper meanings and societal impact. The purpose of this introduction is to provide a comprehensive overview of the key concepts, influential figures, and historical developments in Modern Literary Theory and Criticism, highlighting its significance and impact in the field of literary studies.

Literary criticism, the evaluation and interpretation of literature, is an important aspect of literary studies. Over the years, various theories of criticism have emerged, each offering a unique perspective on the reading and interpretation of literature. This presentation outlines some of the major theories of criticism, starting from Matthew Arnold’s “A Study of Poetry” (1888) and T.S. Eliot’s “Tradition and Individual Talent” (1919) to the latest theories of digital humanities.

The earliest theories of criticism include the works of I.A. Richards, who presented the practical criticism approach in his book “Practical Criticism” (1929). William Empson’s “Seven Types of Ambiguity” (1930) also played a significant role in the development of criticism. Later, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley introduced the concepts of intentional and affective fallacies in their work.

In the 1930s, Allen Tate introduced the theory of “tension” in poetry, which dealt with the extension (literal meaning) and intension (metaphorical meaning) of a text. Cleanth Brooks, in his works “The Language of Paradox, The Well Wrought Urn” (1947) and “Modern Poetry and the Tradition” (1939), focused on the language of paradox in poetry.

Archetypal criticism, which is concerned with the study of archetypes and symbols in literature, was developed by Maud Bodkin (1934) and Northrop Frye (1940-50). Frye’s theory of the mythos grid, which outlines the universal themes and patterns in literature, is an important contribution to the field of archetypal criticism.

In the latter half of the 20th century, structuralism and semiotics gave rise to stylistics, which deals with the study of style in literature. Deconstruction and poststructuralism, as propounded by Jacques Derrida, also had a major impact on the field of criticism. 

Eco-criticism, which looks at the relationship between literature and the environment, and eco-feminism, which critiques the patriarchal values embedded in society, also gained prominence.

Postcolonialism, which deals with the study of the cultural, political and economic effects of colonialism, was developed by thinkers like Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, and Homi Bhabha. In recent times, the focus has shifted to globalization and climate change, which has given rise to contemporary theories of cultural studies.

Digital Humanities, a field that uses technology to analyze and process literary texts, has also emerged as a significant area of study. The rise of generative literature, where texts are produced by computers, has raised new challenges for critics. The principles and processes of generative literature have been outlined by Jean-Pierre Balpe. The use of AI in digital humanities has raised questions about unconscious bias and the morality of robots, which require further study.

In conclusion, the field of criticism has undergone several transformations over the years, each adding to our understanding of literature. From the earliest works of Arnold and Eliot to the latest theories of digital humanities, the field has constantly evolved to keep pace with changing times. The new challenges posed by AI and the increasing influence of technology on the field only serve to emphasize the ongoing relevance of criticism in our rapidly changing world.


Video Recording of the Session:

Monday 30 January 2023

Research Publication Guidelines for the Beginners

 Research Publication: Guidelines for the Beginners

Publishing a Research Paper: A Step-by-Step Guide

Writing a research paper is a critical part of an academic career. Whether you are presenting it in a seminar, conference, or sending it for peer review, it is important to understand the process of publishing a research paper. In this article, we will discuss the typical steps involved in publishing a research paper, so you can get your work out there and make a lasting impact on your field of study.

1. Identifying the research area 

The first step in publishing a research paper is identifying the area you want to focus on. This requires you to reflect on your interests and expertise, and decide on a topic that aligns with your goals.

2. Deciding on a topic for research paper

Once you have identified the research area, the next step is to decide on a specific topic for your research paper. You need to choose a topic that is both relevant and meaningful, and that you have enough knowledge and experience to write about.

3. Problem statement or question to be answered
Next, you need to frame a problem statement or a question to be answered through your research. This will provide the foundation for your research, and help you stay focused throughout the process.

4. Literature Review
Once you have framed the problem statement or question, you need to conduct a comprehensive literature review. This involves reviewing existing research in your area of study, and identifying gaps in the current knowledge.

5. Methods and Methodology
The next step is to determine the methods and methodology you will use in your research. Method refers to the technique used to collect and organize data, such as fieldwork, questionnaires, and databases. Methodology refers to the critical approach used to interpret the data collected, including the political position and interpretive strategies of the researcher.

6. Critical Analysis and Interpretation
After collecting and analyzing the data, you need to critically evaluate the findings and draw conclusions. This includes interpreting the results and drawing insights from the data.

7. Conclusion
Finally, you need to summarize your findings and provide recommendations for future research in your conclusion. This is your opportunity to demonstrate the significance of your research, and to provide insights into the broader implications of your findings.

8. Choosing a Journal
Once your research paper is complete, the next step is to choose a suitable journal for publishing your work. This involves considering factors such as the scope and focus of the journal, and the audience you want to reach.

9. Writing your paper
The next step is to write your paper, following the guidelines and format of the chosen journal. This involves organizing your research and presenting it in a clear and concise manner.

10. Making your submission
Once you have written your paper, you need to make a formal submission to the journal. This involves following the submission guidelines, including providing an abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.

11. Navigating the peer review process
The peer review process involves having your paper reviewed by experts in your field. This is an important step in the publication process, as it helps ensure the quality and validity of your work.

12. The production process
Finally, once your paper has been reviewed and accepted for publication, the final step is the production process. This involves working with the journal to prepare your paper for publication, including finalizing the format and layout, and incorporating any revisions or corrections recommended by the reviewer.

In conclusion, publishing a research paper involves a series of steps that require careful planning and attention to detail. By following these steps, you can ensure that your research is communicated effectively and reaches the right audience.
ALA, A. (2011, October 10). Publication Guidelines and Procedures [Text]. Public Library Association (PLA).
APA, A. (n.d.). Research and publication. Https://Apastyle.Apa.Org. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from
Nature, S. (n.d.). Submission guidelines | Scientific Reports. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from
OpenEdition, A. (2022, November 28). Guidelines for Submission and Publication of Manuscripts [Text]. Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais; ​​Centro de Estudos Sociais da Universidade de Coimbra.
Patwardhan, B. (2015). Guidelines for Research Publications.
PLOS, A. (2020, September 16). Understanding the Publishing Process. PLOS.
TandF, A. (n.d.). How to publish your research. Author Services. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from


Video Recording:

This video is about a workshop on research methodology organized by the Postgraduate Department of English at DAV College in Chandigarh. The workshop was attended by around 70 participants who were mostly Master's students. The speaker in the video, Professor Dilip Barad, is a guest speaker and is sharing his views on research publication guidelines for beginners. He explains that the first step in publishing a research article or research paper is writing a research paper and the participants are given a small activity to identify a research area and topic. He then moves on to the second and third steps of reading the research paper in seminars, conferences or sending it for peer review and publishing it as a research article.

Thursday 31 December 2020

eFDP - Karnataka University


Session 1: eFDP Karnataka University: UGC-HRDC and IQAC: Dilip Barad

This video is the recording of 'Live' Online Session by Dilip Barad. It is the first session of the three sessions delivered by him from 2 to 4 November 2020. It is delivered in Online Faculty Development Programme organised by HRDC and IQAC, Karnataka University, Dharwad. This session is on the identification of Model for Online Teaching. It also practically demonstrated use of Google Group and Google Classroom.

Session 2: eFDP Karnataka University: UGC-HRDC and IQAC: Dilip Barad

This video is the recording of 'Live' Online Session by Dilip Barad. It is the Second session of the three sessions delivered by him from 2 to 4 November 2020. It is delivered in Online Faculty Development Programme organised by HRDC and IQAC, Karnataka University, Dharwad. This session is on the engaging leaners in online remote teaching through glass board / learning glass / light board and collaborative tools like Google Drive Doc and Spread Sheet.


Session 3: eFDP Karnataka University: UGC-HRDC and IQAC: Dilip Barad

This video is the recording of 'Live' Online Session by Dilip Barad. It is the Third session of the three sessions delivered by him from 2 to 4 November 2020. It is delivered in Online Faculty Development Programme organised by HRDC and IQAC, Karnataka University, Dharwad. This session is on the online assessment using Google Quiz Form and Rubric Based Assessment in Google Classroom.

Sunday 10 May 2020

World After Covid-19

World After Covid-19: Multidisciplinary Ideas

Vedant International Multidisciplinary Multilingual Online Conference on

World After Covid-19: Multidisciplinary Ideas, Designs and Systems

The presentation (video + ppt) uploaded here was presented in this online conference - 10 May 2020

The Presentation & Live Streamed Video

The Video Recording of the Live Streamed Session on YouTube


The Session was Live Streamed on Facebook

Thursday 14 January 2016

FREE BOOKS: 100 legal sites to download literature

FREE BOOKS: 100 legal sites to download literature

Looking for the next great book to sink your teeth into? Look no further. Below are over 100 links to websites that provide free e-books on a huge variety of topics.
Browse works by Mark Twain, Joseph Conrad and other famous authors here.
1.       Classic Bookshelf: This site has put classic novels online, from Charles Dickens to Charlotte Bronte.
2.       The Online Books Page: The University of Pennsylvania hosts this book search and database.
3.       Project Gutenberg: This famous site has over 27,000 free books online.
4.       Page by Page Books: Find books by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and H.G. Wells, as well as speeches from George W. Bush on this site.
5.       Classic Book Library: Genres here include historical fiction, history, science fiction, mystery, romance and children’s literature, but they’re all classics.
6.       Classic Reader: Here you can read Shakespeare, young adult fiction and more.
7.       Read Print: From George Orwell to Alexandre Dumas to George Eliot to Charles Darwin, this online library is stocked with the best classics.
8.       Planet eBook: Download free classic literature titles here, from Dostoevsky to D.H. Lawrence to Joseph Conrad.
9.       The Spectator Project: Montclair State University’s project features full-text, online versions of The Spectator and The Tatler.
10.    Bibliomania: This site has more than 2,000 classic texts, plus study guides and reference books.
11.    Online Library of Literature: Find full and unabridged texts of classic literature, including the Bronte sisters, Mark Twain and more.
12.    Bartleby: Bartleby has much more than just the classics, but its collection of anthologies and other important novels made it famous.
13. has a huge selection of novels, including works by Lewis Carroll, Willa Cather, Sherwood Anderson, Flaubert, George Eliot, F. Scott Fitzgerald and others.
14.    Free Classic Literature: Find British authors like Shakespeare and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, plus other authors like Jules Verne, Mark Twain, and more.
If you don’t absolutely need to pay for your textbooks, save yourself a few hundred dollars by reviewing these sites.
15.    Textbook Revolution: Find biology, business, engineering, mathematics and world history textbooks here.
16.    Wikibooks: From cookbooks to the computing department, find instructional and educational materials here.
17.    KnowThis Free Online Textbooks: Get directed to stats textbooks and more.
18.    Online Medical Textbooks: Find books about plastic surgery, anatomy and more here.
19.    Online Science and Math Textbooks: Access biochemistry, chemistry, aeronautics, medical manuals and other textbooks here.
20.    MIT Open Courseware Supplemental Resources: Find free videos, textbooks and more on the subjects of mechanical engineering, mathematics, chemistry and more.
21.    Flat World Knowledge: This innovative site has created an open college textbooks platform that will launch in January 2009.
22.    Free Business Textbooks: Find free books to go along with accounting, economics and other business classes.
23.    Light and Matter: Here you can access open source physics textbooks.
24.    eMedicine: This project from WebMD is continuously updated and has articles and references on surgery, pediatrics and more.
Math and Science
Turn to this list to find books about math, science, engineering and technology.
25. This site has “thousands of full-text free books,” including a large amount of scientific essays and books.
26.    Free online textbooks, lecture notes, tutorials and videos on mathematics: NYU links to several free resources for math students.
27.    Online Mathematics Texts: Here you can find online textbooks likeElementary Linear Algebra and Complex Variables.
28.    Science and Engineering Books for free download: These books range in topics from nanotechnology to compressible flow.
29. Find over 1800 math, engineering and science books here.
30.    Free Tech Books: Computer programmers and computer science enthusiasts can find helpful books here.
Children’s Books
Even children’s books are now available online. Find illustrated books, chapter books and more.
31.    byGosh: Find free illustrated children’s books and stories here.
32.    Munseys: Munseys has nearly 2,000 children’s titles, plus books about religion, biographies and more.
33.    International Children’s Digital Library: Find award-winning books and search by categories like age group, make believe books, true books or picture books.
34.    Lookybook: Access children’s picture books here.
Philosophy and Religion
For books about philosophy and religion, check out these websites.
35. has music ebooks, cooking ebooks, and over 150 philosophy titles and over 1,000 religion titles.
36. Here you’ll find works by Rene Descartes, Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, David Hume and others.
37.    Free Books on Yoga, Religion and Philosophy: Recent uploads to this site include Practical Lessons in Yoga and Philosophy of Dreams.
38.    The Sociology of Religion: Read this book by Max Weber, here.
39.    Religion eBooks: Read books about the Bible, Christian books, and more.
From Shakespeare to George Bernard Shaw to more contemporary playwrights, visit these sites.
40. Here you can read plays by Chekhov, Thomas Hardy, Ben Jonson, Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe and others.
41.    Plays: Read PygmalionUncle Vanya or The Playboy of the Western World here.
42.    The Complete Works of William Shakespeare: MIT has made available all of Shakespeare’s comedies, tragedies, and histories.
43.    Plays Online: This site catalogs “all the plays [they] know about that are available in full text versions online for free.”
44.    ProPlay: This site has children’s plays, comedies, dramas and musicals.
Modern Fiction, Fantasy and Romance
These websites boast collections of graphic novels, romance novels, fantasy books and more.
45.    Public Bookshelf: Find romance novels, mysteries and more.
46.    The Internet Book Database of Fiction: This forum features fantasy and graphic novels, anime, J.K. Rowling and more.
47.    Free Online Novels: Here you can find Christian novels, fantasy and graphic novels, adventure books, horror books and more.
48.    Foxglove: This British site has free novels, satire and short stories.
49.    Baen Free Library: Find books by Scott Gier, Keith Laumer and others.
50.    The Road to Romance: This website has books by Patricia Cornwell and other romance novelists.
51.    Get Free Ebooks: This site’s largest collection includes fiction books.
52.    John T. Cullen: Read short stories from John T. Cullen here.
53.    SF and Fantasy Books Online: Books here include Arabian Nights,Aesop’s Fables and more.
54.    Free Novels Online and Free Online Cyber-Books: This list contains mostly fantasy books.
Foreign Language
For books in a foreign language like French, Spanish and even Romanian, look here.
55.    Project Laurens Jz Coster: Find Dutch literature here.
56.    ATHENA Textes Francais: Search by author’s name, French books, or books written by other authors but translated into French.
57.    Liber Liber: Download Italian books here. Browse by author, title, or subject.
58.    Biblioteca romaneasca: Find Romanian books on this site.
59.    Bibliolteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes: Look up authors to find a catalog of their available works on this Spanish site.
60.    KEIMENA: This page is entirely in Greek, but if you’re looking for modern Greek literature, this is the place to access books online.
61.    Proyecto Cervantes: Texas A&M’s Proyecto Cervantes has cataloged Cervantes’ work online.
62.    Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum: Access many Latin texts here.
63.    Project Runeberg: Find Scandinavian literature online here.
64.    Italian Women Writers: This site provides information about Italian women authors and features full-text titles too.
65.    Biblioteca Valenciana: Register to use this database of Catalan and Valencian books.
66.    Ketab Farsi: Access literature and publications in Farsi from this site.
67.    Afghanistan Digital Library: Powered by NYU, the Afghanistan Digital Library has works published between 1870 and 1930.
68.    CELT: CELT stands for “the Corpus of Electronic Texts” features important historical literature and documents.
69.    Projekt Gutenberg-DE: This easy-to-use database of German language texts lets you search by genres and author.
History and Culture
Refresh your memory of world history, the classics and U.S. history here.
70.    LibriVox: LibriVox has a good selection of historical fiction.
71.    The Perseus Project: Tufts’ Perseus Digital Library features titles from Ancient Rome and Greece, published in English and original languages.
72.    Access Genealogy: Find literature about Native American history, the Scotch-Irish immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries, and more.
73.    Free History Books: This collection features U.S. history books, including works by Paul Jennings, Sarah Morgan Dawson, Josiah Quincy and others.
74.    Most Popular History Books: Free titles include Seven Days and Seven Nights by Alexander Szegedy and Autobiography of a Female Slave by Martha G. Browne.
Rare Books
Look for rare books online here.
75.    Questia: Questia has 5,000 books available for free, including rare books and classics.
Arts and Entertainment
This list features books about celebrities, movies, fashion and more.
77.    Books-On-Line: This large collection includes movie scripts, newer works, cookbooks and more.
78.    Chest of Books: This site has a wide range of free books, including gardening and cooking books, home improvement books, craft and hobby books, art books and more.
79.    Free e-Books: Find titles related to beauty and fashion, games, health, drama and more.
80.    2020ok: Categories here include art, graphic design, performing arts, ethnic and national, careers, business and a lot more.
81.    Free Art Books: Find artist books and art books in PDF format here.
82.    Free Web design directs you to free web design books.
83.    Free Music Books: Find sheet music, lyrics and books about music here.
84.    Free Fashion Books: Costume and fashion books are linked to the Google Books page.
Here you can find mystery books from Sherlock Holmes to more contemporary authors.
85.    MysteryNet: Read free short mystery stories on this site.
86. Read books by Edgar Allan Poe, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, GK Chesterton and other mystery writers here.
87.    Mystery Books: Read books by Sue Grafton and others.
These poetry sites have works by Emily Dickinson, Edgar Allan Poe and others.
88.    The Literature Network: This site features forums, a copy of The King James Bible, and over 3,000 short stories and poems.
89.    Poetry: This list includes “The Raven,” “O Captain! My Captain!” and “The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde.”
90.    Poem Hunter: Find free poems, lyrics and quotations on this site.
91.    Famous Poetry Online: Read limericks, love poetry, and poems by Robert Browning, Emily Dickinson, John Donne, Lord Byron and others.
92.    Google Poetry: Google Books has a large selection of poetry, fromThe Canterbury Tales to Beowulf to Walt Whitman.
93. Read poems by Maya Angelou, William Blake, Sylvia Plath and more.
94. Rudyard Kipling, Allen Ginsberg and Alfred Lord Tennyson are all featured here.
95. On this site, you can download free poetry ebooks.
For even more free book sites, check out this list.
96.    Banned Books: Here you can follow links of banned books to their full text online.
97.    World eBook Library: This monstrous collection includes classics, encyclopedias, children’s books and a lot more.
98.    DailyLit: DailyLit has everything from Moby Dick to the more recent phenomenon, Skinny Bitch.
99.    A Celebration of Women Writers: The University of Pennsylvania’s page for women writers includes Newbery winners.
100.Free Online Novels: These novels are fully online and range from romance to religious fiction to historical fiction. Download mysteries and other books for your iPhone or eBook reader here.
102.Authorama: Books here are pulled from Google Books and more. You’ll find history books, novels and more.
103.Prize-winning books online: Use this directory to connect to full-text copies of Newbery winners, Nobel Prize winners and Pulitzer winners.