Sunday 2 June 2013

Book Review: Dalit Literature: A Critical Exploration

Book Review
By Dr. Dilip P.Barad, Dept. of English, Bhavnagar University. (15 July 2008)

Dalit Literature: A Critical Exploration
Edited by Amar Nath Prasad and M.B.Gaijan
Published by Sarup & Sons, New Delhi
ISBN: 81-7652-817-2
Rs. 850 (Pp. 318+16)

Thousand of books are written and edited on marginal literature. Dalit Literature: A Critical Exploration, edited by Amar Nath Prasad and M.B.Gaijan, is not the black sheep of that flock. What is it, that one can say in single sentence that is unique of this edited book? It is the pattern in which the idea of Dalit literature evolves, progresses and emerges that makes this book unique and worth reading. See how it happens: the first page of the first article reads: I reject….I reject….I reject. This is the voice of protest, which is synonymous of all marginal literature. The last article quotes J.V.Dave …nowhere a revengeful Dalit anger anywhere although the author is a Dalit lady. But there is evidently a humanist sense… This change in angst clearly shows how Dalit literature has matured to embrace human justice and aesthetic sense. This design in the selection and order of the articles makes this book unique one.
The editing is quite impressive. The selection of articles / research papers is excellent. None of the edited books one ever read would have such a variety and scope in its theme. Thematically the book is very rich. It has 21 well research papers. The critical exploration of Dalit anxiety, Dalit sensibility, Dalit dilemma and Indian Dalichtomy[1] is appealing in all these articles. Various facets of Dalit literature from Chokamela: the pioneer of Dalit movement to Arunthati Roy’s God and Daxa Damodaran’s  Shosh…. is selected in this anthology.  
The beauty of the book lies in its language. It seems editors have worked on the language of all the articles to make it simple and appropriate to the theme discussed in the book. Words after words, sentence after sentence, paragraph after paragraphs flows as smoothly as water flows in river Ganga. However, this calmness or silence is only the upper current of river Ganga. The under current is as furious and fiery as that of volcano burning inside. It voices the silence of the marginalized and the oppressed as its theme.  The theme emerges as naturally as flowers from buds. This makes reading this book a journey, which we wish, should never end.
Read these excerpts to believe it:
“The Poet (Tagore) has not portrayed outcast as miserable, pitiable or helpless. Their condition, portrayed by him, is no doubt pitiable but it is created by the orthodox Indians… Tagore has highly praised their human virtues in their wretched situation. The poet has his own way to raise the issue, different from Gandhi. He has not used Gandhi’s term ‘Harijan’ for Outcaste. He has boldly exposed the hypocrisy of the orthodox … the poet has consciously and earnestly tried to raise the issue of the insulted community.”(Pg 102)

“Arundhati Roy has heralded a revolutionary attitude against the mal-treatment of the untouchable, the vulnerable and the down-trodden. Though these ‘Mombatties’ have no glass, no protection, no support to face the surge of the fast wind, yet in comparison with ‘Laltain’, they are not rigid and stubborn but ever ready to burn another lamp. The Mombaties of Roy’s world which she calls them the God of Los, The God of Small Things, are bound to suffer much insult something’s with causes and sometimes without any cause. The ‘Laltain’ on the other hand, is well fed and well protected. (Pg.269)

“The novel (Shosh) has other sub-themes. Dalit issues it presents but in a different way. Here Dalits are not degraded. Generally it is believed the Dalit writing is merely a cry of Dalits protest. This novel is quite different from that opinion. It is the genuine appeal to human beings to remove al social inequality based on sex or caste. Here Dalits do not protest against non-Dalits’ cruelty but non-Dalit protagonist protests against non-Dalit’ cruelty on Dalit. (Pg.312)
The book opens with Darshna Trivedi’s article. It sets the tone of the entire critical exploration on Dalit literary theory. She quotes form Rig Veda to recent Marathi poems to prove her argument, which she does quite successfully.  She has critically examined the origin of the term Dalit, compared dalit literature with mainstream literature and concluded her article with future of Dalit literature.  Her article opens with the angst-ridden voice (quoted form a Marathi Dalit Poem):
“I reject your culture. I reject your parmeshwar centred tradition. I reject your religion based literature.”
Prof. B.S.Nimavat’s article takes us back to 13th and 14th century. In his article, he explored into the realm of Chokhamela, the Mahar Maharashtrian saint in the Bhakti tradition. He deals with rarest of the rare incident, Mahar guru and Brahmin disciple. The beginning of his article is quite effective. He quotes Prof. Gangadhar Pantawane:  “To me, Dalit is not a Caste. He is a man exploited by the social and economic traditions of the country…. Dalit is a symbol of change and revolution.” Dr. S.K.Paul has very effectively explored Dalitism: its growth and evaluation. He is of the opinion that lack of real sincerity and commitment at the political level and the silence of the Dalits in the key political and bureaucratic positions is the root of all the evils against dalits in society.  He is of the view that Dalitness is essentially a means towards achieving a sense of cultural identity and for that purpose Dalit literature should not only highlight the disadvantages and difficulties together with atrocities and inhuman treatment given to Dalits but its main object should be to bring social awakening among the downtrodden.
This anthology has given good space to regional literature, especially Gujarati Dalit literature. Dr. Pathik Paramar has critically analyzed the Gujarati Dalit poetry in a very exhaustive and comprehensive way. Read the following quotation (of the poem) from his article:
“Who is wounded
That is I
To whom since the centuries
You refuse to know…
You are talking about the wound,
I am living with the wound.”

“I tell them:
This head, is Sambooka’s,
These hands are Eklavaya’s
This heart, Kabir’s.
I am Jabali Satyakama.
But still I am a man.”

He, thus, observes the suppressed voice of the Dalits, their self-experience of injustice and atrocities and their furious expression on the Brahminical traditions. Dr. Rupali Burke’s observations are path breaking. We have read articles and research papers passing running comment on how mainstream literature is different form marginalized literature. But none has given thought provoking and well-evaluated point to point discussion as she has given in her article Reversing Centrality and Marginality: Gujarati Lalit Literature Vs. Gujarati Dalit Literature. Harish Mangalam’s article is gist of his experience as a poet. Being (himself) a poet, none can evaluate origin and development of Gujarati Dalit poetry as he can. He has observed that Gujarati Dalit poetry initiated on a note of revolt, anger and impulse. Slowly and steadily, it flowed smoothly in the sea of mainstream literature. Gujarati Dalit poetry today, has tremendous freshness of expression.
All other articles are also well researched and throw new insight in the field of Dalit literature. Space does not permit to discuss all of them separately in this review. They all are worth reading for study and research.     
All these beads are connected into a beautiful Shabri-mala by the thread, which is made of four articles written by both the editors.  These articles share their views on dalit in various literary genres - from Tagore’s poetry to Arundhati Roy’s novels to Gujarati Dalit Novel. Dr. Amar Nath Prasad critically examined the fact in three novels of Roy that God never makes any difference between a touchable and an untouchable.  He tried to ascertain that no society or nation can ever progress without the co-operation of the Dalit and the downtrodden.
Dr.M.B.Gaijan’s two articles exhibit Dalit consciousness in Tagore’s poetry and Roy’s God of Small Things. Dalit-empathy and dalit-angst is displayed in Tagore’s poetry and Roy’s novel respectively. The book ends with his third article on Shosh – a Gujarati Dalit Novel.  Symbolically speaking, it is not the end, but the beginning of new Dalit literature. It is one of the six articles on Gujarati Dalit literature in this book. Dalit literature has travelled a long day’s journey into nights. The revengeful Dalit voice becomes the voice of humanist in Shosh. This last article opens a new chapter in the Dalit literature. It seems to say that the literature, which began as a protest literature, has matured to encompass humanity and aesthetic justice.
The book is edited so meticulously that it has almost everything that one need to read when it comes to Dalit literature. A must read book for student and researchers of Dalit literature.

[1] The word is derived from Victorian Dichotomy. 

Friday 31 May 2013

The Language Laboratory Software

The language lab has seen ups and downs in the history of its evolution. Ths 60s and 70s witnessed up-rise and sudden decline in its usages.
Digital Education Learning Laboratory, Dept. of English, M.K. Bhavnagar University
To read more on the history of language lab, please click below given links:
Now, as we take second stride in the 21st century, we observe that language labs are again in demand. Technology is bringing in innovative changes in language labs and thus (it seems for the time being) languages labs are getting equipped with software which can beat all those reasons which ones failed language labs. Though it will be too early to say that language labs with new software are the 'in thing' and has no problem. It has its own problems of software and hardware. It seems we will have to wait for the dust to settle down and hold our horses for a few more years before pronouncing final verdict.

Here is embedded an interesting presentation by Dr. Kalyan Chattopadhyay and Prof. Dilip Barad on 'How to setup Digital Language Labs as Self Access Centres.

Here is the list of websites of those companies which provide state-of-the-art software for digital language lab (language lab with PCs connected in LAN): (the list will be updated):
  1. : 
Orell – Multimedia Language Lab System is developed by one of the top Indian IT solution providers open to domestic as well as international markets. Orell has Marketing and technical support centres in Cochin, Bangalore, New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad and Mumbai. (Having technical support is very essential for language labs)

ODLL (Orell Digital Language Lab) is a world class language laboratory software that is a seamless integration of state-of-the-art information technology techniques with proven language teaching methodologies and power-packed with an array of comprehensive study materials.

Since 1962 Young India Films has been at the forefront of introducing new technology in India, particularly in the education sector. The company was founded to distribute movies for Columbia Pictures, and moved swiftly into education. They were the first to equip schools with overhead projectors, LCD panels and, later, LCD projectors. When language labs first became available, Young India Films introduced them to schools and colleges across India. They now provide the most technologically advanced online language teaching resources on the market.

Clarity English Language Lab is a network based teaching software designed to improve teaching environment in the computer labs. Clarity English Language Lab enables a teacher to remotely control, monitor, broadcast, and assist students in teacher PC directly. With powerful functions and friendly user interface, Clarity English Language Lab not only facilitates the teaching process but also brings fun and efficiency to learning. It has been greatly used in Schools, Colleges, Universities.

Logiciel Software Tech Pvt Ltd is an emerging Software Development Company who are focused in the sector of educational software. Founded in the year 2004 by a group of three enthusiastic IT professionals, the innovative software development company Lelogiciel™ is focused on the dynamic growth markets. The company's comprehensive product line ranges from Digital language Lab,career Lab, Aptitude Lab, English Language lab,Content management system, Library management, Campus management, Online examination and e-learning services.
Head quartered in Kochi, India, Lelogiciel™ team is passionate about graphics and e-learning methodologies. Their prime product ‘Digital Language lab’ is designed to assist students for imparting skills in spoken English.

Multimedia Language Lab (MLL) Software is a state-of-the-art learning tool pioneered by MLL that enable students to master any language flawlessly and effortlessly. This 100 percent digitized tool enables linguists to maintain constant two-way communication with every student independently and offer precise guidance during sessions even in large classrooms through networked computers from the confines of the instructor's console.
It is a boon for students as it imparts crisp skill sets in learning the nuances of a foreign language accurately with zero distortion. This full-service computerized learning tool is not only cost-effective eliminating the need for cumbersome tape recorders and amplifiers but is also a true value-addition to any language learning facility.

The 21st century has witnessed a revolution in the use of Mobile phones, Emails and Internet. It has ushered in a new world where communication has become language plus soft skills. In modern times the personality of a job seeker is not merely by virtue of his IQ. It is done on the basis of his EQ too. That is, the learner should be equipped to understand the subtle, emotional an cultural nuances and react appropriately. Here lies the importance of acquiring proper communication skills. Smart Lab - Language Lab Software System is a technically savvy Language Lab to hone the communicative competence. Smart Lab - Digital Language Lab is a teaching, learning software. Smart Lab make use of intelligible English that both the native and non - natives speakers of English can apprehend quite easily.

They call themselves the pioneers and the leaders in Fully Computerised Digital Language Lab. ETNL has
designed copyright protected ETNL Language Lab in the year 2001-2002 and successfully implemented at St. Teresa's College. Now They have got Eight academic years experience in technology based English Language Teaching.

LearnSOFT language lab is an instructional technology tool consisting of a source unit that can disseminate audio, audio/visual, and/or written materials to students at individual seats, with a wide variety of potential feedback mechanisms to the Student, Teacher or group of Students in the network. Teacher is the Core part of the LearnSOFT Language Lab. All features are available in Teacher Console.

LearnSOFT Learning Solutions is a technological breakthrough by Logiciel Software Tech Private Limited for imparting high standards in teaching and learning with aid of ICT ("Information and Communications Technology"). The language lab teacher is provided with content matching world class standards developed by specialists.

Globarena started with the aim of providing Quality Learning Solutions by using state of the art technology, and has created a niche for itself. Whether you are a corporate seeking to improve your employee performance or an educational institution planning to help students to succeed in their careers, their products can make a positive impact to your learning needs in many ways.

(Please note that I do not recommend these software for language lab. I use Globarena Language Lab and Career Lab at our institute. I found it good for elementary level learning English language and soft skills through technology. But for intermediate and higher level of learners, the software requires updation. I have seen demo of Orell and Clarity. They also seemed to be good option for lab. I would suggest to contact sales manager and ask for demo before finalising any of the above software. If the software allows freedom of adding and editing course content, I would firmly recommend to go for it.)
Dilip Barad - DELL, HMP Institute

Thursday 23 May 2013

Booker International 2013 - Goes to Lydia Davis - Short Story Writer

What is Booker International?
The Man Booker International Prize, which is distinct from the Man Booker Prize, is a biennial award given to a living author of any nationality for a body of work, rather than a single title, published in English or generally available in English translation. The prize recognizes an individual’s achievement in fiction.(Source: livemint)

The previous winners include 

U. R. Ananthamurthy, 80, was contending for the prize alongside Intizar Husain from Pakistan, Aharon Appelfeld from Israel, and dissident writers like Yan Lianke of China and Vladimir Sorokin of Russia among others. He is the first ever Indian to have been nominated for the prize

"If someone asks me 'Where does he live?' should I answer 'Well, right now he is not living he is dying'?

If someone asks me, 'Where does he live?' can I say 'He lives in Vernon Hall'? Or should I say 'He is dying in Vernon Hall'?"

Isn't it an interesting read? This is Lydia Davis - winner of Man Booker International 2013.

'The Independent' titled this news as "
"Lydia Davis, the shortest of all short story writers, whose works can be as brief as a single sentence, has won the fifth Man Booker International Prize."
Doesn't it arouse curiosity to read some of her shortest short stories?

Well, satiate your desire to read her:
(These stories are down-sourced from
Five Stories
Lydia Davis


MICE LIVE IN OUR WALLS but do not trouble our kitchen. We are pleased but cannot understand why they do not come into our kitchen where we have traps set, as they come into the kitchens of our neighbors. Although we are pleased, we are also upset, because the mice behave as though there were something wrong with our kitchen. What makes this even more puzzling is that our house is much less tidy than the houses of our neighbors. There is more food lying about in our kitchen, more crumbs on the counters and filthy scraps of onion kicked against the base of the cabinets. In fact, there is so much loose food in the kitchen I can only think the mice themselves are defeated by it. In a tidy kitchen, it is a challenge for them to find enough food night after night to survive until spring. They patiently hunt and nibble hour after hour until they are satisfied. In our kitchen, however, they are faced with something so out of proportion to their experience that they cannot deal with it. They might venture out a few steps, but soon the overwhelming sights and smells drive them back into their holes, uncomfortable and embarrassed at not being able to scavenge as they should.


An outburst of anger near the road, a refusal to speak on the path, a silence in the pine woods, a silence across the old railroad bridge, an attempt to be friendly in the water, a refusal to end the argument on the flat stones, a cry of anger on the steep bank of dirt, a weeping among the bushes.


You see how circumstances are to blame. I am not really an odd person if I put more and more small pieces of shredded kleenex in my ears and tie a scarf around my head: when I lived alone I had all the silence I needed.


Nearly every morning, a certain woman in our community comes running out of her house with her face white and her overcoat flapping wildly. She cries out, "Emergency, emergency," and one of us runs to her and holds her until her fears are calmed. We know she is making it up; nothing has really happened to her. But we understand, because there is hardly one of us who has not been moved at some time to do just what she has done, and every time, it has taken all our strength, and even the strength of our friends and families too, to quiet us.


They are lost, but also not lost but somewhere in the world. Most of them are small, though two are larger, one a coat and one a dog. Of the small things, one is a certain ring, one a certain button. They are lost from me and where I am, but they are also not gone. They are somewhere else, and they are there to someone else, it may be. But if not there to someone else, the ring is, still, not lost to itself, but there, only not where I am, and the button, too, there, still, only not where I am.

Don't miss to read this review by Tania Hershman

Reviewing the 200 or so stories Lydia Davis' Collected Storiesis a task that feels almost equal to writing a brief summary of the Encyclopaedia Britannica in under 1000 words. I want to comment on every single story, each one of which provoked a reaction in me, is memorable, sharp, different. But that, clearly, is impossible!

Give your comment on her short stories.

Sunday 10 February 2013

The 30 Biggest Myths About Online Learning

This blog post is shared from: 
For as long as eLearning has been around, it has been haunted by the voices of those who aim to criticize its authenticity, viability, and quality. But is it true? Do students of traditional institutions boast more success than those who’ve chosen distance learning?
It’s time for some of these myths to die.
(Click on the above link to read details about these myths: 

1. The technology is unreliable

2. Students don’t get group interaction

3. It puts the teaching profession at risk
4. Students are less likely to finish without a teacher overseeing their work
5. The curriculum is less robust
6. There is no way to measure true learning
7. Distance learning is passive

8. It shelters students from the real world

9. You won’t be taken seriously with a distance learning degree

10. Students miss out on extra-curricular activities

11. It’ll be harder to find a job without the college alumni connections

12. eLearning is impersonal

13. Instructors don’t take distance learning seriously

14. eLearning is for people who are too lazy to go the traditional route

15. eLearning is for people who dropped out of school or couldn’t get into college

16. Distance learning only benefits one type of learning style

17. The technology is too expensive

18. eLearning prevents students from learning how to communicate

19. There are too many real-world distractions to make eLearning effective

20. Students need a top of the line computer

21. eLearners don’t have access to resources that traditional students have

22. eLearning is a trend that will never equal traditional education

23. Colleges haven’t come onboard fully with eLearning because it’s inferior

24. It doesn’t provide real life experience

25. Distance learning looks like a cop out

26. eLearning is not that much cheaper than traditional education because of hidden costs

27. eLearning means more screen time, which is not good for the eyes

28. There’s no way to judge the quality of the eLearning program

29. eLearning is boring

30. eLearning will never become the WAY of education

Saturday 9 February 2013

AN Idea of Utopian state - Rama Rajya

(This post was posted as 'comment' on Facebook under posting of Vacha Dave. Please read the comment to contextualize my views in proper context)

 I am skeptical about such Utopian state - where all is well and all are happy.
Why I believe so because to have such 'super-state' - Rama-Rajya - there should be equality, fraternity and liberty (three watch words of French Renaissance). Well, Equality is a myth. There can never be equality among all living-nonliving beings. All attempts for 'equality' has failed, are failing and will fail - read French Revolution and its outcome, George Orwell's Animal Farm and recent in/actions of United Nations. (UN is blind Dhritrashtra. Isn't it?).Fraternity / Brotherhood is another myth. We can have 'brothers-like-friends', but it is difficult to have friends-like-brothers. It is rare (almost impossible) to find brothers as good friends. read - Bible for Cain and Able, Mahabharat for Kauravas and Pandavas, split in Reliance empire after the death of father... Promod Mahajan's murder.Liberty is yet another myth. Rousseau rightly said - Man is born free, and everywhere he is in shackles. read the political, econolical and social histories of all postcolonial nations - are they really happy after 'liberating' from so called 'raavan-raj of european nations.Thus, all such 'ideologies' which arouse us to crave for oasis are self-contradictory. They are not natural. Yes, i mean it - THEY ARE NOT NATURAL.I am skeptic about what Darwin or Herbert Spencer terms as 'natural'.(this is yet another ideology).Ideologies never work in practical life. If you give freedom of speech to all (even to downtrodden), then Queen of the Rama-Rajya has to live exiled (unhappy) life.
More important is the ideology of 'tolerance'. Are we the Indians not considered as 'soft-people' for being too tolerant? So, if we are tolerant towards 'wickedness' of others, we are considered cowards. And Bhagwat Gita rightly says - its evil to tolerate evil. (Yes, it is very complicated to define 'evil' - one's evil may be other's good).
Well, to conclude this lengthy comment - the answer to why wise-men of the past ages are not able to give - a cook book for super-state is that - to construct super-state is not everyone's cup of tea! And writing book is giving 'theory of living life' - but the yaksha prashna is CAN WE THEORIZE LIFE? Won't it be yet another shackle freedom of human beings?

Friday 4 January 2013

M.A. English Study Material (Reading Resources) for the Students of External Departmenrt, M. K. Bhavnagar University

Add caption
Dear Friends,

ALERT!There is some technical issues of the website so it is non-functional as of now. We will fix it very soon. Till then, we request you to follow this EVENT page on Facebook to get updates on study material >

or  Click here to access study material.

You can download previous exam question papers and question banks. The reading resources of all papers will be uploaded very soon.
Thank you. 

Please visit to download study  material / reading resources for M.A. English programme, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar - Gujarat (India).

You will find syllabus and study material with original texts, links of web resources, research articles etc on course content of Semester 1 and 2 OR Part 1. Click on this link to view the webpage.

Click on the titles of the courses offered under this programme to view specific webpage with study material only on that course. Thereafter, click on the image of the text/unit to visit sub webpage with study material:

All these links may not work. Click here to access study material
(Click here to practice online Quizzes)

All these links may not work. Click here to access study material.

You will find syllabus and study material with original texts, links of web resources, research articles etc on course content of Semester 3 and 4 OR Part 2. Click on this link to view the webpage.

Click on the titles of the courses offered under this programme to view specific webpage with study material only on that course. Thereafter, click on the image of the text/unit to visit sub webpage with study material:

Monday 16 April 2012

Project Blended Learning 2012

Welcome to Project Blended Learning 2010-20!

Note: Click on the below given web-link to view students' updated ePortfolios / Digital Portfolios

On this site, which is a sort of digital locker of students, you will find records of all curricular, co-curricular and other activities of students of following batches:

  1. Batch 2022 - 24 (New . . . Updated on 12 April 2024)
  2. Batch 2021 - 23
  3. Batch 2020 - 22 
  4. Batch 2019 - 21
  5. Batch 2018 - 20 
  6. Batch 2017 - 19 
  7. Batch 2016 - 18 
  8. Batch 2015 - 17 
  9. Batch 2014 - 16
  10. Batch 2013 - 15
  11. Batch 2012 - 14
  12. Batch 2011 - 13
  13. Batch 2010 - 12

The purpose of this site - :

1. To share action research carried out at Department of English
Bhavnagar University (Gujarat - India).
2. To display the projects submitted by students.
3. To present the outcomes of the experiment on Blended Learning.

Project Blended Learning 2012

This site is run by Department of EnglishBhavnagar University. The site is designed by Dr. Dilip Barad with specific purpose to organise projects submitted by the students. On this site you will find all the Google Sites submitted by students as a part of the partial fulfilment of continuous internal assessment. The students were supposed to us Blogger for assignments, Slideshare for presentations and YouTube for videos of their presentations.

This project was carried out with dual purpose. Firstly, to fulfil one of the objectives of the UGC to have innovations in teaching - learning with the help ICT integration. Secondly, it was to experiment with blended learning. We wanted to experiment the feasibility of ICT integration with traditional face-to-face teaching method. The google group was used for instructions, sharing, collaboration and build eCommunication among faculty and students. Click on Department of English Google Group or scroll down to read archived communications.

By clicking on the image of a student you will be able to see the work done by her/him during four semesters from June 2010 to April 2012.

The outcome of this project is be available here.
The feedback given by students can be read here.

* These charts displays the percentage variation in B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) and M.A. (Master of Arts). Almost all the students, except for one in each batch, displayed good improvement in thier University examination. These real examinations (and not the faked one like pre-post-tests) are used as substantial proof to prove that students show remarkable improvement in their learning capacities when face to face teaching is blended with technology based learning.
* In the below given chart (Batch 2010-12), we can see that the percentage of only one student decreased as compared to that of BA. The green bars reflects the percentage of MA and blue that of BA.

Advantage Blended Learning (2010-12)
All students improved their performance in real-life University exam

* In the below give chart (Batch 2011-13), again, only one students' percentage decreased in MA as compared to that in BA. The red bars reflect percentage in MA.

Advantage Blended Learning (2011-13)
All students improved their performance in real-life University exam

* In the below give chart (Batch 2012-14), all students' percentage improved in M.A. as compared to that in B.A. The purple bars reflect percentage in MA.

Advantage Blended Learning (2012-14)
All students improved their performance in real-life University exam