Showing posts with label literature. Show all posts
Showing posts with label literature. Show all posts

Thursday 7 May 2020

Tagore and Nationalism

Rabindranath Tagore and Nationalism

The webinar on 'Retrospection and Relevance of Rabindranath Tagore's Literature' was organised by Shri Sangameshwar Arts and Commerce College, Chadchan, District Vijaypura (Bijapur).
The College is associated with Rani Channamma University, Belagavi (Belgaum). Its area of affiliation is districts of North Karnataka.
The webinar was coordinated by Mr. Basavraj Yallur.

Friday 1 May 2020

The Plague - Albert Camus

About - The Plague  (Albert Camus)

[... and other resources on Literature and Epidemic]

Online Test based on this blog on 'The Plague': 

Click here to appear in the online test. You will get auto-generated certificate with your score.

The Plague (French: La Peste) is a novel by Albert Camus, published in 1947, that tells the story of a plague sweeping the French Algerian city of Oran. It asks a number of questions relating to the nature of destiny and the human condition. The characters in the book, ranging from doctors to vacationers to fugitives, all help to show the effects the plague has on a populace.
The novel is believed to be based on the cholera epidemic that killed a large proportion of Oran's population in 1849 following French colonization, but the novel is set in the 1940s.
The Plague is considered an existentialist classic despite Camus' objection to the label.
The novel has been read as an allegorical treatment of the French resistance to Nazi occupation during World War II (Tony Judt). The Plague represents how the world deals with the philosophical notion of the Absurd, a theory that Camus himself helped to define (Wikipedia).

Camus and The Plague

In January 1941, the twenty-eight year old French writer Albert Camus began work on a novel about a virus that spreads uncontrollably from animals to humans and ends up destroying half the population of a representative modern town. It was called La Peste/The Plague, eventually published in 1947 and frequently described as the greatest European novel of the postwar period (The Book of Life) . . . Click here to read more.

Video 1:

There is no more important book to understand our times than Albert Camus's The Plague, a novel about a virus that spreads uncontrollably from animals to humans and ends up destroying half the population of a representative modern town. Camus speaks to us now not because he was a magical seer, but because he correctly sized up human nature. As he wrote: ‘Everyone has inside it himself this plague, because no one in the world, no one, can ever be immune.’ (Watching time 10 minutes)

Video 2:

An analysis of Albert Camus' The Plague. Enjoy:)! "Everybody knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world; yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet always plagues and wars take people equally by surprise." Albert Camus, The Plague. (watching time: 25 minutes)

Video 3: (Additional / optional video resource)

Online chat with William Chafe, Alice Mary Baldwin Professor of History, and Frank Stasio

Gujarati Translation of the novel 'The Plague' by Paresh Vyas.

This translation was published in ten episodes in Gujarati daily 'Gujarat Samachar'. Paresh Vyas made the translation interesting by connecting it with contemporary corona virus covid 19 pandemic. The column 'Fact and Similarity' connects the fictional events of the novel with the real world happenings of today.

References and Additional Reading Resources:

1. Full original novel- The

2. Block, Melissa. 

3. Lepore, Jill. 
In the literature of pestilence, the greatest threat isn’t the loss of human life but the loss of what makes us human.

4. Schaub, Michael. 

5. Villuamy, Ed. 
The fascist ‘plague’ that inspired the novel may have gone, but 55 years after his death, many other varieties of pestilence keep this book urgently relevant . . . 

6. Judt, Tony. The Hero of Our Times.
The Plague, an allegory of the German occupation of France and an attack on dogma and cowardice, established the reputation of Albert Camus. Today, argues Tony Judt, it is more relevant than ever

Wednesday 19 February 2020

Teaching English Language through Literature - Teacher Resources

Teaching Language and Literature

Teacher Resources: The Teaching of Language through Literature

Above topics are taken from:
Literature and Language Teaching: A guide for teachers and trainers 
- by Gillian Lazar (1993, CUP)

Handouts - by Dr. Atanu Bhattacharya

Teaching Literature

Why teach literature for language classroom?

Sunday 9 February 2020

Knowledge Week 2020

Knowledge Week 2020

Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University organised a week long Knowledge week from 3rd Feb to 8th Feb 2020. In this Knowledge Week, renowned speakers like Swami Dharmabandhuji, Dr, Anish Chandarana, Jay Vasavada, Dr. Jay Narayan Vyas, Swami Brahamavihari and Dr. Jagdish Trivedi interacted with students on topics like Youth and Nation, Health, Social Media, Economics, Human Values and Literature.

Day 1: 

Day 2: 

Day 3:

Day 4:

Day 5:

Day 6:

Thursday 6 February 2020

Novels That Shaped Our World

100 Novels That Shaped Our World (BBC)

Stories have the power to change us. BBC-Arts asked a panel of leading writers, curators and critics to choose 100 genre-busting novels that have had an impact on their lives, and this is the result. These English language novels, written over the last 300 years, range from children’s classics to popular page turners. Organised into themes, they reflect the ways books help shape and influence our thinking. There was months of deliberation and reflection by the panel but what would you have chosen? Share the novel that's shaped you on their Facebook page or using #mybooklife on Twitter.

Identity — 

  •  Beloved — Toni Morrison
  •  Days Without End — Sebastian Barry
  •  Fugitive Pieces — Anne Michaels
  •  Half of a Yellow Sun — Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
  •  Homegoing — Yaa Gyasi
  •  Small Island — Andrea Levy
  •  The Bell Jar — Sylvia Plath
  •  The God of Small Things — Arundhati Roy
  •  Things Fall Apart — Chinua Achebe
  •  White Teeth — Zadie Smith

Love, Sex & Romance — 

  •  Bridget Jones’s Diary — Helen Fielding
  •  Forever — Judy Blume
  •  Giovanni’s Room — James Baldwin
  •  Pride and Prejudice — Jane Austen
  •  Riders — Jilly Cooper
  •  Their Eyes Were Watching God — Zora Neale Hurston
  •  The Far Pavilions — M. M. Kaye
  •  The Forty Rules of Love — Elif Shafak
  •  The Passion — Jeanette Winterson
  •  The Slaves of Solitude — Patrick Hamilton

Adventure —

  •  City of Bohane — Kevin Barry
  •  Eye of the Needle — Ken Follett
  •  For Whom the Bell Tolls — Ernest Hemingway
  •  His Dark Materials Trilogy — Phillip Pullman
  •  Ivanhoe — Walter Scott
  •  Mr Standfast — John Buchan
  •  The Big Sleep — Raymond Chandler
  •  The Hunger Games — Suzanne Collins
  •  The Jack Aubrey Novels — Patrick O’Brian
  •  The Lord of the Rings Trilogy — J.R.R. Tolkein

Life, Death & Other Worlds — 

  •  A Game of Thrones — George R. R. Martin
  •  Astonishing the Gods — Ben Okri
  •  Dune — Frank Herbert
  •  Frankenstein — Mary Shelley
  •  Gilead — Marilynne Robinson
  •  The Chronicles of Narnia — C. S. Lewis
  •  The Discworld Series — Terry Pratchett
  •  The Earthsea Trilogy — Ursula K. Le Guin
  •  The Sandman Series — Neil Gaiman
  •  The Road — Cormac McCarthy

Politics, Power & Protest — 

  •  A Thousand Splendid Suns — Khaled Hosseini
  •  Brave New World — Aldous Huxley
  •  Home Fire — Kamila Shamsie
  •  Lord of the Flies — William Golding
  •  Noughts & Crosses — Malorie Blackman
  •  Strumpet City — James Plunkett
  •  The Color Purple — Alice Walker
  •  To Kill a Mockingbird — Harper Lee
  •  V for Vendetta — Alan Moore
  •  Unless — Carol Shields

Class & Society — 

  •  A House for Mr Biswas — V. S. Naipaul
  •  Cannery Row — John Steinbeck
  •  Disgrace — J.M. Coetzee
  •  Our Mutual Friend — Charles Dickens
  •  Poor Cow — Nell Dunn
  •  Saturday Night and Sunday Morning — Alan Sillitoe
  •  The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne — Brian Moore
  •  The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie — Muriel Spark
  •  The Remains of the Day — Kazuo Ishiguro
  •  Wide Sargasso Sea — Jean Rhys

Coming of Age — 

  •  Emily of New Moon — L. M. Montgomery
  •  Golden Child — Claire Adam
  •  Oryx and Crake — Margaret Atwood
  •  So Long, See You Tomorrow — William Maxwell
  •  Swami and Friends — R. K. Narayan
  •  The Country Girls — Edna O’Brien
  •  The Harry Potter series — J. K. Rowling
  •  The Outsiders — S. E. Hinton
  •  The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole, Aged 13 ¾ — Sue Townsend
  •  The Twilight Saga — Stephanie Meyer

Family & Friendship — 

  •  A Suitable Boy — Vikram Seth
  •  Ballet Shoes — Noel Streatfeild
  •  Cloudstreet — Tim Winton
  •  Cold Comfort Farm — Stella Gibbons
  •  I Capture the Castle — Dodie Smith
  •  Middlemarch — George Eliot
  •  Tales of the City — Armistead Maupin
  •  The Shipping News — E. Annie Proulx
  •  The Tenant of Wildfell Hall — Anne Bronte
  •  The Witches — Roald Dahl

Conflict & Crime — 

  •  American Tabloid — James Ellroy
  •  American War — Omar El Akkad
  •  Ice Candy Man — Bapsi Sidhwa
  •  Rebecca — Daphne du Maurier
  •  Regeneration — Pat Barker
  •  The Children of Men — P.D. James
  •  The Hound of the Baskervilles — Arthur Conan Doyle
  •  The Reluctant Fundamentalist — Mohsin Hamid
  •  The Talented Mr Ripley — Patricia Highsmith
  •  The Quiet American — Graham Greene

Rule Breakers —

  •  A Confederacy of Dunces — John Kennedy Toole
  •  Bartleby, the Scrivener — Herman Melville
  •  Habibi — Craig Thompson
  •  How to be Both — Ali Smith
  •  Orlando — Virginia Woolf
  •  Nights at the Circus — Angela Carter
  •  Nineteen Eighty-Four — George Orwell
  •  Psmith, Journalist — P. G. Wodehouse
  •  The Moor’s Last Sigh — Salman Rushdie
  •  Zami: A New Spelling of My Name — Audre Lorde
The panel are Radio 4 Front Row presenter and Times Literary Supplement editor Stig Abell, broadcaster Mariella Frostrup, authors Juno Dawson, Kit de Waal and Alexander McCall Smith, and Bradford Festival Literary Director Syima Aslam

Saturday 7 April 2018

Metaphors of Literature

साहित्य के रूपकों

शुरूआती दिनों में, साहित्य के लिए  'आईने' वाला रूपक ठीक है. जब हम बड़े होते जाते है तब रूपक बदलता जाता है.

प्रकाश भी रूपक अच्छा है. आइना अगर 'रिफ्लेक्ट' करता है तो प्रकाश 'अन्धकार को उजालित' करता है. मिरर एंड लैंप

तो फिर वो कृष्ण की बासुरी और मोरपिछ सा है. जो अपने सुरीलेपन  और मुलायमता से वास्तविकता की कठोरता से कही दूर दूर रुमानवाद का एहसास करता है. भारतीय साहित्य में युवा कविओ में यह रूपक काफी लोकप्रिय रहता है.

फिर जोनाथन स्विफ्ट को याद करे तो, वो मधपुडा भी है जहाँ साहित्यकार मधुमक्खी है और मधपुडा , साहित्य। 
ये रूपक उन साहित्य के लिए है जो मीठा मधुरा है और जीवनुपयोगी प्रकाश (मोम) भी देता है। 

तो कोई साहित्यकर स्पाइडर (मकड़ी) और उनका साहित्य मकड़ी के जाल (स्पाइडर'स वेब) से होता है जो हंमेशा किसी को जाल में फसा कर अपना खुराक बनाता रहता है।

फिर वो 'प्याज़' भी है। परख के निचे परख, न खत्म होने वाली परखे, और जब आप इसे खोलते हो तब आंखे नम हो जाती है या फिर पानी से लबालब।

फिर वो क्ष-रे मशीन की तस्वीर सा बन जाता है जो नापसंद आने वाली ब्लैक&व्हाइट तस्वीर देती है जिसकी सच्चाई से इनकार नही कर सकते।

फिर वो श्रीफल सा, ऊपर से  रूक्ष / कठोर सा पर अगर अन्दर खोल कर देख सको तो मीठा जल सा एंड मुलायम सा महसूस होता है.

फिर वो बेर्टोल्ट ब्रेख्त का हथोड़ा बन जाता है तो समाज को ठीक-थक करता है, या फिर काफ्का की कुल्हाड़ी जो  जमी हुई बर्फ को तोड़ने का काम करती है.

साहित्य तो अनेकोनेक रुपको से भरा पड़ा है.

Thursday 29 September 2016

Selfie in Literature

#Selfie in #literature is not a new phenomenon.
Actually, this is going beyond autobiographies. As autobiographies have yet another battle to fight n win and that's about it being called "real" literature. But, quite interestingly, writers have used "words" as now people use "camera" to take selfie of what they do, eat, drink, travel . . . and what not!
The only difference is that this new form is just done with camera phones rather than with words. There are great many #narcissists in literary world.
Walt Whitman with his '*Song of Myself* which begins with this line
"I celebrate myself, and sing myself"
is an example enough to prove it.
*Kamala Das*/ *Madavikutty's '* *An Introduction* ' is yet another interesting example of selfie in poem:
"I am Indian, very brown, born in Malabar,
I speak three languages, write in
Two, dream in one.
It is I who drink lonely
Drinks at twelve, midnight, in hotels of strange towns,
It is I who laugh, it is I who make love
And then, feel shame, it is I who lie dying
With a rattle in my throat. I am sinner,
I am saint. I am the beloved and the
Betrayed. I have no joys that are not yours, no
Aches which are not yours.
I too call myself I*."
(The image is gujarati poem (?) by Chandrakant Bakshi. Shared by Jay Metra in comment on fb post.

Saturday 8 August 2015

Worksheet: Aristotle's Poetics (Short Video Lectures, Quiz and Questions)


Aristotle's Poetics

On this worksheet you will find Short Video Lectures, Quiz and Questions on Aristotle's Poetics
Plato and Aristotle
Download Ingram Bywater's translation of 'Poetics'

Download S H Butcher's translation of 'Poetics'

Download Study Material

Download Sophocles's Oedipus, the Rex

View these Short Video Lectures and respond to the questions given below. Give your responses as ‘Comment’ below this blog. Please attempt the quiz also. The link of the quiz is given below embedded videos.

Short Video Lecture - 1

Plato's Main Objections against Poets and Poetry:

Short Video Lecture - 2

Aristotle's reply to Plato's charges

Short Video Lecture - 3

Theory of Mimesis

Short Video Lecture - 4

Definition of Tragedy

Short Video Lecture - 5

Plot is the Soul

Short Video Lecture - 6

Tragic Hero

Quiz on Aristotle's Poetics

Questions to Respond: (Give your responses in Comment below this blog)

1.  How far do you agree with Plato’s objection to freedom of expression and artistic liberty enjoyed by creative writers? Name the texts (novels, plays, poems, movies, TV soaps etc which can be rightfully objected and banned with reference to Plato’s objections)
2.  With reference to the literary texts you have studied during B.A. programme, write brief note on the texts which followed Aristotelian literary tradition (i.e. his concept of tragedy, catharsis, tragic hero with hamartia etc)
3.  With reference to the literary texts you have studied during B.A. programme, write brief note on the texts which did NOT follow Aristotelian literary tradition. (i.e. his concept of tragedy, catharsis, tragic hero with hamartia etc.)
4.  Have you studied any tragedies during B.A. programme? Who was/were the tragic protagonist/s in those tragedies? What was their ‘hamartia’?
5. Did the ‘Plot’ of those tragedies follow necessary rules and regulations proposed by Aristotle? (Like chain of cause and effect, principle of probability and necessity, harmonious arrangement of incidents, complete, certain magnitude, unity of action etc)

Saturday 21 March 2015

Deconstruction and Derrida

Jacques Derrida:
Structure Sign and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences

(from The Structuralist Controversy, ed. Richard Macksey and Donato E. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Uni Press 1970)

Define deconstruction:
Deconstruction, as applied in the criticism of literature, designates a theory and practice of reading which questions and claims to "subvert" or "undermine" the assumption that the system of language provides grounds that are adequate to establish the boundaries, the coherence or unity, and the determinate meanings of a literary text. Typically, a deconstructive reading sets out to show that conflicting forces within the text itself serve to dissipate the seeming definiteness of its structure and meanings into an indefinite array of incompatible and undecidable possibilities.

Q. Expound Derrida’s concept of decentering centre and suplimentarity.
Q. Discuss how Derrida asserts the inexhaustibility of the text and thus keeps it perpetually open to new discoveries.
Q. Comment upon the post-structuralist view that there is no ‘a-textual origin’ of text.
Q. The Post Structuralist critic 'read the text against itself so as to expose what might be thought of as the 'textual subconscious', where meanings are expressed which may be directly contrary to the surface meaning.
Deconstruction: In the criticism of literature, Deconstruction is a theory and practice of reading which questions and claims to ‘subvert’ or ‘undermine’ the assumption that the system of language provides grounds that are adequate to establish the boundaries, the coherence or unity, and the determinate meaning of a literary text. Typically, a deconstructive reading sets out to show the conflicting forces within the text itself to dissipate the seeming definiteness of its structure and meaning into indefinite array of incompatibility and undecidable possibilities.
Derrida was the most influential philosopher in 70s and 80s of last century. His philosophy is the further extension of structuralism and is better called as Post-Structuralism. He carries this structuralist movement to its logical extreme and his reasoning is original and startling. We have seen in this movement that as in New Criticism, the attention was shifted from the writer to the work of literary text; consequently textual analysis became more important than extra textual information. Further, the author disappeared and only the text remained. This is what we called the stylistic and structuralist position. The meaning as it emerges from the text (the illocutionary force) alone counted. In this process the importance of the reader and his understanding increased, and the Reader Response or Reception Theory came into being. Derrida gives the same process a further and final push according to which what matters is the reading and not the writing of the text. At times one feels, though not quite justifiably, that, in Derrida even the text disappears and what is left behind is an individual’s reader response to it. Now the reader rules the supreme, and the validity of his reading can not be challenged. However, the structure of each reading has to be coherent and convincing.

Decentering the Centre
Derrida deconstructs the metaphysics of presence. That is to say that according to Derrida there is no presence or truth apart from language. He seeks to prove that the structurality of the structure does not indicate a presence above its free play of signs. This presence was earlier supposed to be the centre of the structure which was paradoxically thought to be within, and outside this structure, it was truth and within, it was intelligibility. But Derrida contends that, ‘the centre could not be thought in the form of a being-presence’, and that in any given text, there is only a free play of an infinite number of sign substitutions. A word is explained by another word which is only a word not an existence. Thus a text is all words which are just words, not indicative of any presence beyond them. In the words of John Sturrock, “The resort to language or sign entails, we know the loss of all uniqueness and immediacy. The sign is not the thing in itself”. It is utteractive or repeatable. A sign which was uttered only once would be not sign. It is the types of which each utterance is token.
There is no a-textual origin of a text. The author’s plan of a book is a text. His realization of the same book is another text. Its summary is third text. A text kindles a text and there is no truth beyond the text that the text seeks to represent or explain. There is no reality other than textuality. The textuality is the free play of signifiers. There is no signified that is not itself a signifier.
In the words of John Sturrock, Derrida seeks to undermine “a prevailing and generally unconscious ‘idealism’, which asserts that language does not create meanings but reveals them, thereby implying that meanings, pre-exists their expression”. This for Derrida is nonsense. For him there can be no meaning which is not formulated, we cannot reach outside language.

The concept of supplementarity follows from decentrring the centre. A literary text is a work of language and language as such according to Derrida, is like time, ever in a state of flux. Just as time has no origin, so also the origin of language is inconceivable. All that we can say is that it came into being fully, not bit by bit along with the emergence of man, and will disappear along with man. Derrida quotes and approves Levi-Strauss who writes: “Whatever may have been the moment and the circumstances of its appearance in the scale of animal life, language could only have been born in one full swoop (all at a time). Things could not have set about signifying progressively. Following a transformation the study of which is not the concern of the social sciences, but rather of biology and psychology, a crossing over came about from a stage where nothing had a meaning to another where everything possessed it”.
But language being a flux is not ever the same. It is always gaining in new elements and loosing the older ones. “The totality of the myths of a people”, Derrida quotes Levi-Strauss again, “is of the order of the discourse. Provided that these people do not become physically or morally extinct, this totality is never extinct. Such a criticism would therefore be equivalent to re-approaching a linguist with writing the grammar of a language without having recorded the totality of the words which have been uttered since that language came into existence and without knowing the verbal exchanges which will take place as long as the language continues to exist.” Totalisation is thus useless and impossible. The language paradoxically comes into being as a quest of imaginary truth apart from language and continues to realize the lack of truth in the words that it employs. The freeplay of signifiers, “a field of infinite substitutions in the closure of a finite ‘ensemble’ permitted by the lack. The absence of centre of a origin is the movement of supplimentarity. The super abundance of the signifier, its supplementary character, is thus the result of a finitude, that is to say, the result of a lack which must be supplemented. The process of supplementarity has no end. Because positive & concrete definition is impossible for any term, every term necessarily requires a supplement or supplements, something or some things which help(s) it exist and be understood. Yet, at the same time, the object(s) which the supplement is (are) supplementing is (are) (a) supplements itself. Extend this web in all directions and the relationship between bricolage, play, and the supplementary begins to make sense.

The same applied to any literary text. We look for the truth of the text which in fact is only language, and create in our quest another text through our criticism to supplement the lack of the original text. Supplement the lack of the original text - reading is reactivating the expressivity of the text with the help of its indicative signs. But in the words of John Sturrock, “the meanings that are read into it may or may not coincide with the meanings which the author believes he or she has invested it with. A reasonable view is that a large number of these meanings will coincide depending on how far separable author and reader are in time, space and culture; but that a large number of other meanings will not coincide. For language have powers of generating meanings irrespective of the wishes of those of who use it.”
Of course, the discussion here barely begins to scratch the surface of the implications made by Derrida, for within not even a full fourteen pages of text, has established the foundation of one of the most significant revolutions in the history of thought. Of course, saying that Derrida demonstrated how the history of thought contradicted itself and in so doing imploded the foundation of Western philosophy. Yet, there is scant little chance of denying that Derrida himself holds some special place in this development: if not as its father then at least as its catalyst.

Deconstruction, not critique

Traditional Western metaphysics advances on the basis of critique. You find the weakness in your antagonist's argument, and by this means show it to be false. In the tradition of Pope and Swift, you
may then ridicule the argument, thereby persuading your reader to take your side against your antagonist. You go on to replace the previous position with your own views, which are then subject to
critique in their turn. Deconstruction, however, is not critique. Derrida treats Levi-Strauss with respect, and his project is not to persuade us to repudiate Saussure, still less to ridicule him (though there are moments of comedy in his account of the sermon against the sin of writing delivered by the moralist from Geneva). Instead, he points out that Saussure's own book does not sustain the opposition between speech and writing it takes for granted and reiterates. On the contrary, the Course records (as an outrage) the invasion of the rejected writing into speech itself. Spelling, Saussure declares with horror, is changing pronunciation.

Let us conclude with M. H. Abram’s observation in ‘How to do things with texts?’: - “Derrida emphasizes that to deconstruct is not to destroy; that his task is to “dismantle the metaphysical and rhetorical structures” operative in a text “not in order to reject or discard them, but to reconstitute them in another way”; - that he puts into question the “search for the signified not annul it, but to understand it within a system to which such a reading is blind.”  

What post-structuralist critics do?

1. They 'read the text against itself so as to expose what might be thought of as the 'textual
subconscious', where meanings are expressed which may be directly contrary to the surface meaning.
2. They fix upon the surface features of the words - similarities in sound, the root meanings of words, a 'dead' (or dying) metaphor and bring these to the foreground, so that they become crucial to the overall meaning.
3. They seek to show that the text is characterized by disunity rather than unity.
4. They concentrate on a single passage and analyze it so intensively that it becomes impossible to
sustain a 'univocal' reading and the language explodes into 'multiplicities of meaning'.
5. They look for shifts and breaks of various kinds in the text and see these as evidence of what is
repressed or glossed over or passed over in silence by the text. These discontinuities are sometimes called 'fault-lines', a geological metaphor referring to the breaks in rock formations which give evidence of previous activity and movement.

Structuralism and Poststructuralism: Some Practical Differences

Barry, Peter. An introduction to literary and cultural theory