Wednesday 9 May 2018

Memorabilia 2017-18

Memorabilia 2017-18

From the Desk of the Department

Milan Kundera has rightly observed that it is difficult to understand ‘Memory’ unless we apply mathematical approach. So, the ratio between the amount of time lived and the amount of time from that life that is stored in memory is something significant. No one has ever tried to calculate this ratio, and in fact there exists no technique for doing so; yet without much risk of error one could assume that the memory retains no more than a millionth, a hundred-millionth, in short, an utterly infinitesimal bit of the lived life. Except an imaginary device like ‘Pensieve’, it is not possible to preserve ‘events’ in ‘memory’ as it happened. However, there are dangers of having Pensieve and so not all Witches / Wizards in J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter world kept it. It was Dumbledore who kept Pensieve.
This Memorabilia is something between Kundera’s mathematical approach and Dumbledore’s Pensieve. The Memorabilia 2017-18 retains and recreates infinitesimal bit of students and teachers lived experience in the Department of English, M.K. Bhavnagar University. At the same time, it is not as magically powerful as Pensieve wherein one can have a peep inside the dark memory which is to be hidden, ashamed off, holds super secrets and protects the privacy of those mentioned in it. Nevertheless, the Memorabilia 2017-18 has something more than what Milan Kundera refers as ‘infinitesimal bit of memory’ and something less than the power of storing dark memories by Pensieve. After all, we have to be ‘politically correct’ and hence abstain from ‘documenting’ dark-secretive memories even at the cost of imperfections.
Looking back at the memories created by the students of Batch 2016-18, I see yet another bunch of talented, beaming with spark, and confident young 22 students ready to perform in real life situations. Let me take an opportunity of this space and refer to some of the incredible talents they displayed during last two years.
Ajit Kaliya is a gifted artist. His paintings are not only aesthetically pleasing but are deeply meaningful. He brought several laurels to our Department by winning positions in Cartooning, Collage and Installations at University, Zonal and National Level Youth Festivals. His art can be viewed here:
Alpa Ponda is a very good in acting and in performing arts like drama. It was her vision and hard work that after many years, our Department participated in One Act Play, Mon0 Acting and Skit in the Youth Festival of MKBU. She also presented though provoking research paper on film adaptation of Devdas at M.S. University A K Ramanujan Paper reading contest. She being the leader of ‘Film Screening Committee’, has screened several films, plays and programmes with the help of other members.
Architaba Gohil is excellent in photography. On several occasions, she displayed her artistic photos in Daily Schedule. It was her concept of Photography competition. The Department organised first of its kind Mobile Photography Competition and ranks were decided through online public voting. She being the leader of ‘Art and Creativity Committee’ has envisioned several creative programmes with the help of other members.
Budhiditya Das was one of the most-remotest students Department ever had. Coming from the Eastern state Assam, in this Western part of India, she would have undergone several cultural shocks which, in turn, would have enriched her experience of ‘knowing India as nation’. As the leader of Library committee, she managed all the affairs related to keeping records of books and its distribution to students, research scholars and other teachers. Libraries are very important centres of learning and is the place were ‘soul of academic institute’ is located. Somehow, in digital times, libraries are fast becoming insignificant, an artefact of digital cultures erasing the essence of being human. Thus, her task is even tougher. She stood up to the mark and presented annual report / charts, which is worth watching in this Memorabilia. We hope, she will leave Department / MKBU / Gujarat with positive imprints in her memory.
Namrata Zala, the leader of ICT committee, has taken technology integration a step ahead. She and other committee members planned very useful workshop for fresh students so that they can learn the ‘know-hows’ of use of technology in Department for various academic purposes. This was a very idea, which Department will institutionalise it for upcoming years. With the able help of Dharaba Zala and other members, she managed to carry out very tough task of managing Laptop-Bank and other ICT related issues. This committee has the toughest job as we are not very good in technology and have to keep on trouble-shooting new errors, time and again.
Rinkal Jani, as a leader of Daily Schedule committee, has displayed astonishing and incredible punctuality. She never missed to ask about the Daily Schedule and all Daily Schedules were very well managed. Special attractions of DS were those Special Days celebrated with varied academic, non-academic presentations made by students. So, the days like Hindi Language Day, International Women’s Day, Guru Purnima etc were very well accomplished under her able guidance. This committee members have to come early to manage several things. She and her committee members stood up to the expectations. Throughout the year, DS became wonderful assembly of ideas and personal presentations. This year they came up with an idea of Slums Visit. It was eye-opening to listen to their reports about the lives of poor slum dwelers and their cravings for quality education for their future generations. All credit goes to Rinkal and her committee members.
Megha Trivedi, with a sheer talent for academic work, is promising talent and can have bright career in academics. Her performance in presentations was remarkable. As time ripens, her habit of hard work will give her the fruits of success in real life. She was leader of Gardening Committee. Memory tree plantation, cleanliness of the vicinity of Department and maintenance of planted trees were the responsibilities of this committee. If you are impressed by the ‘green’ outside the Department building, thanks to her and the Gardening Committee.
Mansi, Kavita, Mital, Riddhi, Krishna are silent workers. Being in the committee of Bulletin Board, they took care that the poems of students, paintings on the occasions of festivals and quotable quotes on notice board are presented on the bulletin board. What they missed was news about latest happenings in India and around the world.
Matangi Bhatt was the leader of celebration committee and he was quite enthusiastic about it. They celebrated festivals like Holi, Christmas and Kite Flying. It was she and her committee members who deserves a big big thanks for all festive colours that the Department celebrated.
Komal Shahedapuri, the leader for entire academic year, managed everything with meticulous care and consideration. This was the year, in which as Head of the Department, I received least complaints from students about each other. The credit goes the leader who manages everyday affairs of the Department. With additional responsibilities, she was very punctual in all her tasks and activities in personal capacity also. Many students stand with an excuse for not doing the tasks on time on grounds of one or other works. She, to the best of my memory, never gave an excuse for not completing the tasks or activities. In addition, she and Megha Trivedi has taken additional project work which requires filed survey also.
It will be odd to use the cliché, ‘last but not the least important’ but let it be used to write about Documentation Committee and its leader Surbhi Gausvami. It is, indeed, extremely tough to remain on your toes throughout the year and keep records of all that is happening in and around institutes, which is busy doing lot many things and almost every week ‘something happens’. She very well documented happenings on Facebook and thus gave a very good social media coverage to the activities of Department. What makes social media post significant is - a small but sensible writeup with the photos of the events – and she was able to do so effectively. Komal, Megha and other students also helped in social media documentations. This Memorabilia is also edited by her and the team. It requires lots of perseverance and persistence in working throughout the year for documentation and then organise it in such a presentable shape. It was a tough call, and I am glad to say that Surbhi and her team have done far better than expected. (Visit this for the evidence of the work: )
I  may miss out some students like Arti Vadher (who has excellent talents if used appropriately, she can achieve unimaginable things in life), Kiran Vora (again a gem of person who outshines others in Presentations but rather inactive at other times), Binkalba Gohil, Mital Raval, Kailash Baraiya, Riddhi Maru and Dharaba Gohil (who silently does work in their capacity and are ready to help others), and Krishna Khamal (needs to remember her for her never-say-die attitude in learning digital skills), but they were also an integral part of all the good work other committees / students / teachers and Department was able to do during this academic year 2017-18.
As this comes from my memory, there are all chances that things may not be recorded as perfectly as the Black Box. There may be imperfections in my memory and what-so-ever documents supports my perceptions of the students may just be an illusion about them. We never know what we do not know so none can say with a particular amount of certainty in what they say from their memories. One thing is sure – the passing students have contributed a lot in making of me as a teacher and has given innumerable proud moments to the Department of English, MKBU. You all have added great value to the brand image of Department of English which previous students has established and strengthened. With a promise to see that none of your contribution in strengthening the brand of Department of English will ever be weakened or maligned, I hereby, give rest to my fingertips. - Dilip Barad.

The Memorabilia 2017-18 can be downloaded from:

Saturday 28 April 2018

Iconographical Reading of Mythical Figures

This post will be regularly updated with possible readings of pictorial representation of mythical figures.

Here we go with Parshuram.

Parshuram Jayanti (Anniversary)
What significance do we find in the iconography of Parshuram in paintings? The first one is from an unknown painter in c. 1820. The seconds one is Raja Ravi Varma in c. 1920. The third is very popular on social media. (Can anybody share the source of this image?) The fourth is very recent digital painting.
If we read the belly - the stomach as the 'sign' in these images, what does it signify? The big belly is a very traditional 'sign' to signify the identity of Brahmin. Here, Brahmin can be read not only as an identity in Chtusvarna or caste but also as elite or high class or rich and happy leisure class people. What does the change from big belly of 1820 to slimmer in 1920s to the one with 6/8 packs of abs of recent portrayal of Parshuram signify? It surely is painted under the influence of modern day body building where in triceps, biceps, chest muscles, abs, and thigh muscles signifies an ideal macho-male figure. It is known to all that there is similarity in beauty pageants and these body building pageants. Both the ideal slim female figures as well as the ideas macho-muscular male figures are nothing but plastic and perfume. Then what does the change in the figure of Parshuram signify? Is it deeply repressed urge to be aggressive, belligerent, determined, assertive, and determined? Can it be said that those who are not so are more attracted towards such images as a part of wish fulfillment? Does it speak about owning aggression and disowning serendipity, calmness and sobriety? Does this iconography speak more about the urge of Indians to prove their mettle against the identity of 'soft nation'? At the time when so many armed personnel are killed by Naxals in Sukama and by terrorists in Kashmir, even though there is nothing new in it as it is repeated for several decades now, that deep urge to own aggression becomes even more stronger. Was it the similar urge among Brahmins to equate Kshatriyas that has captured the imagination in more recent portrayals of Parshuram and thus his looks are more aggressive?
At the same time, it is significant to observe that the deep desire to do something or be somebody is vented out in form of art and hence there is no urge left to do or be. So those who make or share such pictures of aggression, cannot be so or do so. The classic case is Bahubali2. See, how the people who were in search of answers for why jawans are killed, suddenly got engaged with why Katappa killed Bahubali? The film with similar macho-male figures will vent out the desire to 'be' or 'do' and again, with all emotions spent, we will be in the lap of serendipity, calmness and sobriety. The pictures, either still or moving, makes for an interesting reading when seen in the context of the milieu and moment which shaped it or are shaped by it.


George M. Williams ((2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 146–148) and T. A. Gopinatha Rao ((1993). Elements of Hindu iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 58, 190–194.) mentioned that Hanuman is normally presented as 'Bhakta' / 'Sevak' of Lord Rama and is found kneeling down on his right hand side as an ardent devotee. He is also presented with Mace (Gada) and Vajra (thunderbolt) when events from his life are presented. By and large, Hanuman is remembered in popular culture as devotee, courageous, meditative yogi. Have a look at these random inages:

And then comes Karan Acharya's Angry Hanuman

This icon of Hanuman becomes so popular with the masses that you see it everywhere.

Sidhartha Bhatia wrote an interesting story for The Wire on this. Read it here.

He has made some noteworthy observations. Some of the observations are given below.

Karan Acharya's rendition of Hanuman 'image' gives completely different spin.
The image in question, done in dark saffron and black, shows Hanuman with a furrowed brow, glowering eyes and a scowl. The monkey god has very different qualities in Hindu lore but the work projects ultra machismo that fits in well with the self-image of the Hindutva oriented male. Acharya says his Hanuman has “attitude not aggression”, is “powerful, not oppressive”. Those who are displaying it with pride may not necessarily think so.

It is the kind of image that can be used and amplified across multiple platforms and could transmit just the message that . . .  'The Hindu is effete no more; he is angry and ready to take on anyone, violently if necessary'.

Hanuman fetches the herb-bearing mountain, in a print from the Ravi Varma Press, 1910's

The young demography of India may no longer like Raja Ravi Varma's Hanuman. The angry Hanuman ticks off all the key boxes from the right-wing point of view – not only is it hyper masculine and forceful in its representation, it is also modern. This is clearly graphic art, possibly done on the computer, in a stylistic way that would appeal to a younger demographic. They may not be attracted to the soft-focussed, kitschy, calendar representations of yore that can be seen in homes and shops all over India. No self-respecting young Hindutva warrior will want to stick a work of Raja Ravi Verma on his SUV; this looks technologically advanced enough to use with pride and arrogance.
Isn't this iconographic reading of the mythical figures enigmatically captivating and fascinatingly stimulating?

Iconography of Mohammad, the Messenger

Now a days, it is popularly believed that depiction of Mohammad, the Messenger in painting is prohibited and hence considered blasphemous.
It was not so in past. There are many paintings available online. More to come on this.
As of now, if one is eager to read more on this, click on these sites:
1. Here is what you need to know about how Islam views depiction of Prophet Mohammad - › stories › you-c...
Here's what you need to know about how Islam views depictions of Prophet Muhammad
2. Drawing the Prophet - Islam's Hidden History of Mohammad's Paintings -
Web results
Drawing the prophet: Islam's hidden history of Muhammad images
3. Prophet was once glorified in art - › 2015/01/16
Web results
The Prophet Muhammad Was Once Glorified In Art | Here & Now - WBUR

And many more to come . . . . 

Wednesday 18 April 2018

Memes on Internet in Ancient India

Memes on Internet in Ancient India

Time and again, one or the other Indian stands up to claim all modern inventions as either made / conceived in Ancient India or is mentioned in Ancient texts / hymns/ Psalms.
This blog is collection of memes circulated on social media about this concept that 'Indians invented everything modern world invents'.
One of the objectives of this collection is to study popular culture and not to join the bandwagon of farce created around it.
The recent fun and fury on social media is the result of speech on the Digital India given by Tripura CM Biplab Deb:
Tripura Chief Minister Biplab Deb came up with a new scientific interpretation for the evolution of internet when he said internet existed in the days of Mahabharata as well. 

Deb, who made this statement at a public event, said: "India has been using internet since ages. In Mahabharata, Sanjay was blind but he narrated what was happening in the battlefield to Dhritarashtra anyway. This was due to internet and technology. Satellite also existed during that period." 

Your valuable comments are welcome.

(Source: Internet, Social Media and Indian Atheist FB Page)
Pandavas and Draupadi complaining to Krishna about low internet speed during Mahabharata time.

Krishna and balaram having a skype call with pandavas on war strategies. Colorized.

Not satire. The merit promoting geniuses at ShankNaad really believe this.

Nuclear launches during Mahabharat times. Colorized.

300TB pen drive used in Mahabharat times. Contains all battle techniques and systems used by Pandavas. The weight is to stop it from getting stolen by enemy spies. We can't see the data yet as it is of grade USB7.0 (Note the security of thick walls. The same technique was used in Aadhar)

With advanced security. They even streamed the war on Facebook. Mark Zuckerberg confirmed this in last week's testimony

Krishna live streamed the moment he stopped being a sexual assaulter and started helping others. The video was streamed in 8k resolution 3D using 9G technology. (Indian Atheist FB Page)

Mayabazar Telugu Movie Scenes starring N. T. Rama Rao, Savitri and S. V. Ranga Rao Directed by Kadiri Venkata Reddy. Produced by Nagi Reddy and Music composed by Ghantasala.

Maya Bazar (1957) Movie | Evergreen Song Nivena Nanu Talachinadi Video Song | NTR,ANR,SVR,Savitri

Why such things happen?
Before we try to find an answer, read what Babu Suthar posted on his fb wall. It is direct connection to the mindset which thinks in this pattern.

આપણે ચોમ્સ્કીની વાત કરીએ એટલે સામેવાળો કહે: તમે પાણિની વાંચ્યો છે? આપણે ના પાડીએ. પછી આપણે એને પૂછીએ: તમે ચોમ્સ્કી વાંચ્યો છે? તો એ ના પાડશે. પછી આપણે પૂછીશું: તો તો તમે પાણિનીનો બરાબર અભ્યાસ કર્યો હશે. તો એ કહેશે: ના. 

આપણે સોસ્યુરની વાત કરીએ ત્યારે એ કહેશે: સોસ્યુર સંસ્કૃત ભણાવતા હતા. ખબર છે ને? આપણે હા પાડીએ. પછી કહેશે: એટલે જ એમણે આટલો વિકાસ કર્યો. આપણે પૂછીએ: ભારતમાં તો વરસોથી સંસ્કૃત ભણાવાય છે. કોઈ સોસ્યુર કેમ પેદા ન થયો? એટલે એ આપણને પશ્ચિમના કહીને બાજુ પર મૂકી દેશે.

આપણે એમને કહીએ કે પાણિનીના સંસ્કૃત વ્યાકરણના આધારે અમેરિકાના કેટલાક ભાષાવિજ્ઞાનીઓએ Optimality theory વિકસાવી. તમને ખબર છે? તો એ કહેશે: જર્મનો આપણા ત્યાંથી સંસ્કૃત ગ્રંથો ચોરી ગયા અને એ ગ્રંથોના આધારે એમને વિકાસ કર્યો. 

કોઈ અમેિરકન કાર્ડોના પાણિનીના અષ્ટાધ્યાયી પર અઠાર જેટલા ગ્રંથોનું આયોજન કરે તો એ કહેશે: છેને. હવે ધોળિયા પણ પાણિની ભણે છે.

કેટલીક વાર એ માણસ જરા ગંભીર બનીને આપણને કહેશે: જો આપણે શૂન્યની શોધ ન કરી હોત તો પશ્ચિમ અત્યારે ક્યાં હોત? એનો કોઈ વિકસ જ ન થયો હોત. આપણે એને એટલું જ કહેવાનું કે તો એ સંજોગોમાં ભારત ક્યાં હોત? 

આપણે પશ્ચિમની કોઈ કૃતિનું નામ દઈએ એટલે એ કહેશે: પશ્ચિમનું પશ્ચિમનું. ન ચાલે. આપણે એને પૂર્વની પાંચ કૃતિઓનાં નામ પૂછીશું તો એ શાકુંતલ અને ગીતાનાં નામ આપશે. પછી આપણે એને પૂછીશું: તમે એ પુસ્તકોનો અભ્યાસ કર્યો છે? એ કહેશે: ના. હવે કરવો છે.

સારાંશ આટલો જ: તમે એમને નહીં પહોંચી વળો.

Saturday 7 April 2018

Metaphors of Literature

साहित्य के रूपकों

शुरूआती दिनों में, साहित्य के लिए  'आईने' वाला रूपक ठीक है. जब हम बड़े होते जाते है तब रूपक बदलता जाता है.

प्रकाश भी रूपक अच्छा है. आइना अगर 'रिफ्लेक्ट' करता है तो प्रकाश 'अन्धकार को उजालित' करता है. मिरर एंड लैंप

तो फिर वो कृष्ण की बासुरी और मोरपिछ सा है. जो अपने सुरीलेपन  और मुलायमता से वास्तविकता की कठोरता से कही दूर दूर रुमानवाद का एहसास करता है. भारतीय साहित्य में युवा कविओ में यह रूपक काफी लोकप्रिय रहता है.

फिर जोनाथन स्विफ्ट को याद करे तो, वो मधपुडा भी है जहाँ साहित्यकार मधुमक्खी है और मधपुडा , साहित्य। 
ये रूपक उन साहित्य के लिए है जो मीठा मधुरा है और जीवनुपयोगी प्रकाश (मोम) भी देता है। 

तो कोई साहित्यकर स्पाइडर (मकड़ी) और उनका साहित्य मकड़ी के जाल (स्पाइडर'स वेब) से होता है जो हंमेशा किसी को जाल में फसा कर अपना खुराक बनाता रहता है।

फिर वो 'प्याज़' भी है। परख के निचे परख, न खत्म होने वाली परखे, और जब आप इसे खोलते हो तब आंखे नम हो जाती है या फिर पानी से लबालब।

फिर वो क्ष-रे मशीन की तस्वीर सा बन जाता है जो नापसंद आने वाली ब्लैक&व्हाइट तस्वीर देती है जिसकी सच्चाई से इनकार नही कर सकते।

फिर वो श्रीफल सा, ऊपर से  रूक्ष / कठोर सा पर अगर अन्दर खोल कर देख सको तो मीठा जल सा एंड मुलायम सा महसूस होता है.

फिर वो बेर्टोल्ट ब्रेख्त का हथोड़ा बन जाता है तो समाज को ठीक-थक करता है, या फिर काफ्का की कुल्हाड़ी जो  जमी हुई बर्फ को तोड़ने का काम करती है.

साहित्य तो अनेकोनेक रुपको से भरा पड़ा है.

Tuesday 27 March 2018

Wole Soyinka's The Swamp Dwellers

Wole Soyinka's The Swamp Dweller

The Writer: Wole Soyinka: (Source:

Akinwande Oluwole "Wole" Babatunde Soyinka (YorubaAkinwándé Oluwo̩lé Babátúndé S̩óyinkápronounced [wɔlé ʃójĩŋká]; born 13 July 1934) is a Nigerian playwright, poet and essayist. He was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature,[2] the first African to be honoured in that category.
Soyinka was born into a Yoruba family in Abeokuta. After studying in Nigeria and the UK, he worked with the Royal Court Theatre in London. He went on to write plays that were produced in both countries, in theatres and on radio. He took an active role in Nigeria's political history and its struggle for independence from Great Britain. In 1965, he seized the Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service studio and broadcast a demand for the cancellation of the Western Nigeria Regional Elections. In 1967 during the Nigerian Civil War, he was arrested by the federal government of General Yakubu Gowon and put in solitary confinement for two years.[3]
Soyinka has been a strong critic of successive Nigerian governments, especially the country's many military dictators, as well as other political tyrannies, including the Mugabe regime in Zimbabwe. Much of his writing has been concerned with "the oppressive boot and the irrelevance of the colour of the foot that wears it".[4]During the regime of General Sani Abacha (1993–98), Soyinka escaped from Nigeria on a motorcycle via the "NADECO Route." Abacha later proclaimed a death sentence against him "in absentia."[4] With civilian rule restored to Nigeria in 1999, Soyinka returned to his nation.
In Nigeria, Soyinka was a Professor of Comparative Literature (1975 to 1999) at the Obafemi Awolowo University, then called the University of Ife.[5] With civilian rule restored to Nigeria in 1999, he was made professor emeritus.[3] While in the United States, he first taught at Cornell University as Goldwin Smith professor for African Studies and Theatre Arts from 1988-1991[6][7] and then at Emory University where in 1996 he was appointed Robert W. Woodruff Professor of the Arts. Soyinka has been a Professor of Creative Writing at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and has served as scholar-in-residence at NYU’s Institute of African American Affairs and at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, California, US.[3][8] He has also taught at the universities of OxfordHarvard and Yale.[9][10]
In December 2017, he was awarded the Europe Theatre Prize in the "Special Prize" category[11][12] awarded to someone who has “contributed to the realisation of cultural events that promote understanding and the exchange of knowledge between peoples”.[13]
After graduating, he remained in Leeds with the intention of earning an M.A. Soyinka intended to write new work combining European theatrical traditions with those of his Yorùbá cultural heritage. His first major play, The Swamp Dwellers (1958), was followed a year later by The Lion and the Jewel, a comedy that attracted interest from several members of London's Royal Court Theatre. Encouraged, Soyinka moved to London, where he worked as a play reader for the Royal Court Theatre. During the same period, both of his plays were performed in Ibadan. They dealt with the uneasy relationship between progress and tradition in Nigeria.[20]

Watch the Play - The Swamp Dwellers

  1.  Tyler Wasson; Gert H. Brieger (1 January 1987). Nobel Prize Winners: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, Volume 1. The University of Michigan. p. 993. ISBN 9780824207564. Retrieved 4 December 2014.

  2. Jump up^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986 Wole Soyinka". The Nobel Prize. Retrieved 10 December 2013.

  3. Jump up to:a b c Theresia de Vroom, "The Many Dimensions of Wole Soyinka"Vistas, Loyola Marymount University. Retrieved 17 April 2012.

  4. Jump up to:a b c d Maya Jaggi (2 November 2002). "Ousting monsters"The GuardianISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 October 2016.

  5. Jump up^ "Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife  » Brief History of the University" Retrieved 2016-10-04.

  6. Jump up^ "Soyinka, Wole 1934- - Dictionary definition of Soyinka, Wole 1934- | FREE online dictionary" Retrieved 2017-12-22.

  7. Jump up^

  8. Jump up to:a b "Nobel Laureate Soyinka at NYU for Events in October", News Release, NYU, 16 September 2016.

  9. Jump up^ "Profile of Nobel Laureate Wole Soyinka" (pdf). The University of Alberta. Retrieved 10 December 2013.

  10. Jump up^ Posey, Jacquie (18 November 2004). "Nigerian Writer, Nobel Laureate Wole Soyinka to Speak at Penn"The University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 10 December 2013.

  11. Jump up^ "Wole Soyinka Wins The Europe Theatre Prize - PM NEWS Nigeria"PM NEWS Nigeria. 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-24.

  12. Jump up^ "Soyinka Wins 2017 Europe Theatre Prize"Concise News. 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2017-12-24.

  13. Jump up to:a b "Wole Soyinka to receive Europe Theatre Prize 2017"James Murua's Literature Blog. 2017-12-14. Retrieved 2017-12-24.

  14.  "Wole Soyinka"The New York Times, 22 July 2009.