Thursday 26 December 2013

Cleanth Brooks: The Language of Paradox (The Well Wrought Urn)

This is compiled from various web and book resources

Cleanth Brooks’s concept of Paradox and Irony and their importance in poetry as discussed in his essay “The Language of Paradox” in The Well Wrought Urn (1947).

“The language of poetry is the language of paradox” Elucidate with reference to Cleanth Brooks’s essay The Language of Paradox.

In literature, the paradox is a literary device consisting of the anomalous juxtaposition of incongruous ideas for the sake of striking exposition or unexpected insight. It functions as a method of literary composition - and analysis - which involves examining apparently contradictory statements and drawing conclusions either to reconcile them or to explain their presence.
Cleanth Brooks, an active member of the New Critical movement, outlines the use of reading poems through paradox as a method of critical interpretation. Paradox in poetry means that tension at the surface of a verse can lead to apparent contradictions and hypocrisies. His seminal essay, "The Language of Paradox," lays out Brooks' argument for the centrality of paradox by demonstrating that paradox is “the language appropriate and inevitable to poetry." The argument is based on the contention that referential language is too vague for the specific message a poet expresses; he must “make up his language as he goes." This, Brooks argues, is because words are mutable and meaning shifts when words are placed in relation to one another.
In this essay ("The Language of Paradox,"), Cleanth Brooks emphasizes how the language of poetry is different from that of the sciences, claiming that he is interested in our seeing that the paradoxes spring from the very nature of the poet's language: “it is a language in which the connotations play as great a part as the denotations. And I do not mean that the connotations are important as supplying some sort of frill or trimming, something external to the real matter in hand. I mean that the poet does not use a notation at all--as a scientist may properly be said to do so. The poet, within limits, has to make up his language as he goes.”
In this passage, Brooks stresses that poetic language is inherently different from scientific language because the poet constructs his language as he goes and defines his own rules. The poet, then, has control over language, and must take an active role in the shaping of what literature means. The poet, then, is not limited to the denotations of words, but, instead,  revel in the possible connotations of words. The individual poet is given a great deal of power, then, in the process of knowledge making and the reader is isolated from the production of meaning.
In the writing of poems, paradox is used as a method by which unlikely comparisons can be drawn and meaning can be extracted from poems both straightforward and enigmatic.
Brooks points to William Wordsworth's poem “It is a beauteous evening, calm and free.” He begins by outlining the initial and surface conflict, which is that the speaker is filled with worship, while his female companion does not seem to be. The paradox, discovered by the poem’s end, is that the girl is more full of worship than the speaker precisely because she is always consumed with sympathy for nature and not - as is the speaker - in tune with nature while immersed in it.
In his reading of Wordsworth's poem, “Composed upon Westminster Bridge,” Brooks contends that the poem offers paradox not in its details, but in the situation which the speaker creates. Though London is a man-made marvel, and in many respects in opposition to nature, the speaker does not view London as a mechanical and artificial landscape but as a landscape comprised entirely of nature. Since London was created by man, and man is a part of nature, London is thus too a part of nature. It is this reason that gives the speaker the opportunity to remark upon the beauty of London as he would a natural phenomenon, and, as Brooks points out, can call the houses “sleeping” rather than “dead,” because they too are vivified with the natural spark of life, granted to them by the men that built them.
Brooks ends his essay with a reading of John Donne’s poem "The Canonization," which uses a paradox as its underlying metaphor. Using a charged religious term to describe the speaker’s physical love as saintly, Donne effectively argues that in rejecting the material world and withdrawing to a world of each other, the two lovers are appropriate candidates for canonization. This seems to parody both love and religion, but in fact it combines them, pairing unlikely circumstances and demonstrating their resulting complex meaning. Brooks points also to secondary paradoxes in the poem: the simultaneous duality and singleness of love, and the double and contradictory meanings of “die” in Metaphysical poetry (used here as both sexual union and literal death). He contends that these several meanings are impossible to convey at the right depth and emotion in any language but that of paradox. A similar paradox is used in Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet,” when Juliet says “For saints have hands that pilgrims’ hands do touch and palm to palm is holy palmer’s kiss.”
Brooks' contemporaries in the sciences were, in the 40's and 50's, reorganizing university science curricula into codified disciplines. The study of English, however, remained less defined and it became a goal of the New Critical movement to justify literature in an age of science by separating the work from its author and reader, and by examining it as a self-sufficient artifact. In Brooks’s use of the paradox as a tool for analysis, however, he develops a logical case as a literary technique with strong emotional affect. His reading of “The Canonization” in “The Language of Paradox,” where paradox becomes central to expressing complicated ideas of sacred and secular love, provides an example of this development.


Although paradox and irony as New Critical tools for reading poetry are often conflated, they are independent poetical devices. Irony for Brooks is “the obvious warping of a statement by the context” whereas paradox is later glossed as “a special kind of qualification which involves the resolution of opposites.”
Irony functions as a presence in the text – the overriding context of the surrounding words that make up the poem. Only sentences such as 2 + 2 = 4 are free from irony; most other statements are prey to their immediate context and are altered by it (take, as an example, the following joke. "A woman walks into a bar and asks for a double entendre. The bartender gives it to her." This last statement, perfectly acceptable elsewhere, is transformed by its context in the joke to an innuendo) take their effect from it. Irony is the key to validating the poem because a test of any statement grows from the context – validating a statement demands examining the statement in the context of the poem and determining whether it is appropriate to that context.
Paradox, however, is essential to the structure and being of the poem. In The Language of Paradox (The Well Wrought Urn) Brooks shows that paradox was so essential to poetic meaning that paradox was almost identical to poetry. According to fellow New Critic Leroy Searle, Brooks’ use of paradox emphasized the indeterminate lines between form and content. “The form of the poem uniquely embodies its meaning” and the language of the poem “effects the reconciliation of opposites or contraries.” While irony functions within the poem, paradox often refers to the meaning and structure of the poem and is thus inclusive of irony. This existence of opposites or contraries and the reconciliation thereof is poetry and the meaning of the poem.


R.S. Crane, in his essay "The Critical Monism of Cleanth Brooks," argues strongly against Brooks’ centrality of paradox. For one, Brooks believes that the very structure of poetry is paradox, and ignores the other subtleties of imagination and power that poets bring to their poems. Brooks simply believed that “’imagination’ reveals itself in the balance or reconciliation of opposite or discordant qualities.” Brooks, in leaning on the crutch of paradox, only discusses the truth which poetry can reveal, and speaks nothing about the pleasure it can give. Also, by defining poetry as uniquely having a structure of paradox, Brooks ignores the power of paradox in everyday conversation and discourse, including scientific discourse, which Brooks claimed was opposed to poetry. Crane claims that, using Brooks’ definition of poetry, the most powerful paradoxical poem in modern history is Einstein’s formula E = mc2, which is a profound paradox in that matter and energy are the same thing. The argument for the centrality of paradox (and irony) becomes a reductio ad absurdum and is therefore void (or at least ineffective) for literary analysis.

Wednesday 18 December 2013

Woksheet: Screening Movie Adaptation of "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" - by Kenneth Branagh

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is a 1994 American horror film directed and acted by Kenneth Branagh (as Victor Frankesntein) and starring Robert De Niro (as the Creature). The movie is considered to be the most faithful film adaptation of Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus published in 1818.
The film begins with the narration in the voice of Mary Shelley: 
"I busied myself to think of a story which would speak to the mysterious fears of our nature and awaken thrilling horror; one to make the reader dread to look around, to curdle the blood, and quicken the beatings of the heart."

~ Prepared by Heenaba Zala, visitng faculty, Dept. of English, M.K. Bhavnagar Univeristy, Bhavnagar, Gujarat - India ~
Pre-viewing tasks:
  • ·        What is gothic scientific fiction?
  • ·        What is a frame narrative?
  • ·        What is the point of view of the author?
  • ·        What are the viewpoints of different characters?
  • ·        Do you have confusion about the title of the novel?
  • ·        Who do you think is the real monster, the Creator or the Creature?
  • ·        What is tabula rasa?
  • ·        What is the significance of the subtitle "The Modern Prometheus"?
  • ·        Do you think Mary Shelley's Frankenstein stands on the brick of revolutionary changes?

While viewing task:
  • ·        How is the beginning and the end of the movie?
  • ·        Do you feel the effect of horror in the movie?
  • ·        What do you think about the character of the monster in the movie?
  • ·        What do you think about the conversation between Victor and the monster?
  • ·        Do you think that some scenes are omitted or replaced by other scene? How is the effect of these changes?
  • ·        Do you think the director has used appropriate symbols in the movie?

Post-viewing tasks:
  • ·        What is the difference between the movie and the novel?
  • ·        Does the movie help you to understand narrative structure of the novel?
  • ·        Do you think the movie is helpful to understand the viewpoints of different characters?
  • ·        What do you think about the creation of lady monster in the novel and Elizabeth's look of a monster in the movie?
  • ·        Think about Victor's acceptance of Elizabeth and rejection of the monster.
  • Do you think the director is faithful to the novel?

All Students shall post thier responses to the post-viewing task as comment under the posting on Google Plus community of our Department.

The Cover Page of the Novel pub in 1818

Film Poster

Film Poster
Read A Film Review by James Berardinelli
Read an article on the Novel and the Movie
Examination of the Novel and the Film
Read Kenneth Branagh's Interview

Monday 16 December 2013

Twitter: Chirp you way to Sweet Tweets

'One Hundred and Forty Characters in Seach of a Tweeter' can be an interesting retelling of Luigi Pirandello's Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore (Six Characters In Search of an Author). 
'Handle' (@), 'hashtag' (#), 'Retweet' (RT), 'Real Life Retweet' (RLRT) and 'Follow' (follower/following) are the Pandavas of this tweetekshetra. Curious to learn names of Kauravas? Click here.
Wanna play a role in this play? Here are some interesting tips to get ready for the twitheatre:

Sunday 15 December 2013

How to Make Effective Presentation with Power in the Points and Story on the Slides?

Les us break up the in/famous phrase 'power-point-presentation' to make it effective:

  • Power should not be hegemonic to the presenter - but should centre around the audience

  • Points should not prick - but should tickle the viewers to edutain

  • Presentation shoud not be resentful - but should have recent (of late, fresh, current, topical, hot, modern, up to date, latest, contemporary) examples, images and illustrations.
  • The following presentaion justifies this breakup. I would rate this presentation tips as one of the best I have come across in recent past.
    Enjoy reading and putting it into practice!

    Tuesday 3 December 2013

    Teaching Writing Skills to Engineering Students: Panel Discussion via Google Hangout

    This presentation was a part of online participation via Google Hangout in the panel discussion on 'Teaching Writing Skills to Engineering Students. It was organised by Samvad Faculty forum of Dept. of Communication Skills, Marwadi Education Foundation's Group of Institutions, Rajkot (Gujarat - India).
    It was wonderful learning experience. Unfortunately, we were not able to 'Hangout on Air', instead joined by personal video call and so we missed auto-recording of the entire presentation. Had that been done, it would have supported us with ample learning lessons.
    The organising institue has recorded entire session with the help of external camera. As soon as it is uploaded on YouTube, it will be embedded on this blog.

    Sunday 1 December 2013

    Presentations on Research Methodology: Introduction to Research Methodology, Literature Review and Plagiarism

    Presentations on Research Methodology:
    Introduction to Research Methodology, Literature Review and Plagiarism

    Research Methodology in Humanities, especially, in English literary studies is important to the aspirants of M.Phil, Ph.D. or to the research scholars/teachers who wish to apply for minor or major research projects to UGC or similar funding agencies.

    Some important points to be kept in mind while preparing research proposal for Ph.D. / M.Phil in language and literature are:
    • Method and Methodology: Guba, E.G. (1990) in 'The Paradigm Dialogue' has argued that there are three fundamental research questions that structure any research project:
      1. What is there that can be known – what is knowable?
      2. What is the relation of the knower to the known?
      3. How do we find things out? 
       Ann Gray in 'Research Practice for Cultural Studies' (2003 - Sage Publication) elaborates these questions:
      • What is there that can be known - what is knowable?
      This is an ontological question, it refers to the aspect of social reality to be studied, but it also deals with assumptions we are willing to make about the nature of reality. It requires you to take a position in relation to your project and to define your ‘knowable space’. How you construct your knowable space and how you go about exploring and investigating that knowable space will depend upon your theoretical approach to the social world and the actors
      or texts involved.
      • What is the relation of the knower to the known?                                                      This is an epistemological question and, put simply, asks how we know what we know. The assumptions that are made about this depend on how we perceive of the reality, and, although Guba does not suggest this, how we are located as subjects within our research. What we bring to our work, how our own knowledge and experience is brought to bear on the research itself will certainly shape it. This is not a question of being ‘subjective’, nor to suggest that we can only view aspects of the world from our own perspective. Rather,  it is to acknowledge what we ourselves bring to our research in terms of our lived experience, certainly, but also our politics and our intellectual frameworks. It is important to make these explicit. The point about who we are and how we relate to the project itself is a key issue for researchers and, again, has informed many debates about research practice and the politics of knowledge generation.
      • How do we find things out?
        This is methodological questions. What kind of methods must I employ in order to know, or to put me in a position of being able to interpret and analyse this aspect of the social world? This, then, is where you can begin to think about the kinds of data you need and how to gather it in order to begin to explore your research questions
    • Theoretical framework: A researcher stands on the shoulders of previous researchers. The scholars who have worked and given general theories in the area of research should be taken as frame within which new work is explored. The aim of this new work should be to support, refute or go for new theories. This should be clearly defined in the research proposal.
    • Review of related literature: This makes for the foundation - the stepping stones - for new research. One should have birds-eye-view of the work done in the area of research which is to be explored. After understanding the work done, the research scholar should think of taking a step further in new direction in the research under consideration. The roadmap of this new direction should be chalked out in research proposal. (While doing an online open course (MOOC) on Coursera - offered by University of London, i came across these articles on Literature Review. All three of them are worth reading: 
    • Hypothesis: This makes for the research questions > the problem which is to be solved. If there is no problem, there is no need to solve it and hence no need to do research. So, first of all identify problem. Ask questions, doubt and apply deconstructionist approach to raise questions. The hypothesis will emerge from this exercise. Write hypothesis in clear statements.
    • Objectivity Most of us tend to select topic of research not because there is a problem which requires urgent solution but because we are personally, emotionally attached to it. The very first and foremost thing to keep in mind is 'depersonalization'. It is advised to read T.S. Eliot's Tradition and Individual Talent - Part II on poetic process > "It is not an expression of emotion and feelings but an escape from it."One should practice 'detachment' to be a good researcher. Like an umpire in the cricket match, totally engrossed and right at the centre of the match, yet aloof, detached - completely away from the emotions and feelings that drive players and audience.So, the researcher is engrossed, submerged in the research, yet can detach him/herself to critical evaluate his/her own position. It is observed that most of the research scholars fail to achieve this position and so are not able to raise proper questions > they remain emotionally attached and are, thus, blinded to empirical evidences necessary to make statements in thesis/dissertaion.
    • Plan of research (Chapterization): Normally, there are five chapters in thesis/dissertation:
      • Chapter 1: Introduction: It should include, theoretical framework, concept clarification, aims, objectives, hypotheses, research questions and introduction to writers, key terms etc.
      • Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature: All that can be reviewed i.e. theories to be applied, conceptual notes, similar research theses/dissertations, journal articles, books etc should be mentioned with annotated bibliographic record in this chapter. Remember, this is the foundation / stepping stones on which you have to stand or walk your path towards the climax in your thesis/dissertation. The more sound work is done here, you will find the it easy to write chapter 3 and 4.
      • Chapter 3 and 4: These are core chapters in thesis/dissertation. The research questions, hypothesis, analysis of literary texts, analysis of elt experiments etc are thoroughly discussed in these two chapters.
      • Chapter 5: Conclusion: In the entire thesis/dissertation, if there is any space where research scholar is free to write his/her views, it is this chapter. Do not cite any thing. Do not use in-text citation. This space is all yours. You are free to give your interpretations and make the most of it. What ever you have reviewed in chapter 2, whatever you have analyses in chapter 3 and 4, now its time to connect dots - join the arguments - and bring your story to a beautiful end.   

    In this video, you will find basics of literature review and about 'ontological' and 'epistemological' approaches to research question:

    This presentation gives an outline of model syllabus for such courses. It also presents some views of Richard Altick and John Fenstermaker from 'The Art of Literary Research'.

    Literature Review or Review of Related Literature is one of the most vital stages in any research. This presentation attempts to throw some light on the process and important aspects of literature review.

    Saturday 23 November 2013

    Remedy for the Challenge of Continuous Assessment in Large Classes

    This is the presentation for the National Symposium at Charotar University of Science and Technology CHARUSAT (Gujarat - India) organised by Indukaka Ipcowala Institute of Management (I2IM) on Technology in ELT Challenges and Remedies on 23 November, 2013.

    It discusses importance of ICT in testing and evaluation / assessment. It refers to Ken Robinson and Sugata Mitra as well as applications like Moodle, Hotpotatotes, ProProfs, Zoho Quiz, Testmoz etc and then narrows down on Google Docs / forms for online testing and Flubaroo script for auto grading. In live demo, it demonstrates benefits of Google Forms and Flubaroo for online testing and continuous assessment.

    Monday 11 November 2013

    Self-learning from Videos of Personal Presentations and Students' learning experience

    The collage of stamp size photographs of students making presentations with a handy-cam in the centre represents the innovative practice of 'Presentations used for 'self-appraisal' and 'self-improvement'. The DVD of all presentations is given to students and are asked to view with their family, friends and relatives. We have experienced drastic change in students' command over language, body language, pitch, tone, expressions and presentation skills as they move from sem 1 to sem 4. (Oct 2013)

    The experience shared by the pass out students will be available soon on this blog.

    Saturday 9 November 2013

    UGC NET, SET (SLET): Reading Resources: Books, Websites, Blogs

    Reading resource and Information about CBSE - NET (UGC) and SET (CBSE-UGC) (English)

    For official announcements of rules, exams, results etc, rely only on this website: and for Gujarat State:
    Download NET 2018 notification (This link will be updated very soon)
    Download Information Booklet NET 2018 (This link will be updated very soon)

    (Practice Online - Previous years' UGC NET Question papers)

    Click here to download Syllabus

    Paper 1 - Syllabus

    Paper 2 - English Syllabus

    1. Histories of English Literature
    • A History of English Literature - Arthur Compton-Rickett
    • English Literature - William J. Long
    • The History of English Literature - Edward Albert
    • A Short Oxford History of English Literature. Andrew Sanders
    • Indian Writing in English - K R S Iyengar
    2. Companion Series by Oxford (

    5. The New Critical Idiom - a series by Routledge(

    7. List of Books Useful for NET / SET Preparation
    (Caution: These books are not reviewed and so do not guarantee about its quality. These books are available and can be useful for startup on preparation for NET / SET examination.)

    1.     NET / GSET (English). Pub: University Granth Nirman Board, Gujarat State Patnagar Yojno Bhavan,Behind Gujarat College Compound, Old Shardamandir Cross Road, Ellisbridge, Ahmedabad – 380006 Fax:26569074 - Phone: 26424268. Rs. 375/- Order online

    2.     An Objective Approach to English Literature for NET, JRF, SLET and Pre-Ph.D. Registration Test - Ivan K. Masih,K. K. Narayan,Pandey Om Prakash,Rahmat Jahan,Neeraj Kumar. Publisher: Atlantic, New Delhi. Price: 394/- Buy online

    3.     Popular Master Guide: UGC NET/SLET – English Literature – H.S.Bhatia. Published by R. Gupta’s: Ramesh Pub house, New Delhi. Price: 390/-. 011-23261567/23275224.

    4.     Cosmos Bookhives’s UGC NET/SLET – Paper II – English Literature – Dr. B K Sawlashwa. Price: 400 Rs.; 0124-4001086/1087/88.

    5.     Trueman’s Specific Series UGC NET/SLET – English Literature – B P. Panigrahi. Pub by Dainik Pub Company. Price 475 Rs. 011-23278083, 011-30122482

    6.     Upkar’s UGC – English Lit. – paper II – B B Jain. Price 80 Rs., 0562-4031570/2530966

    Publisher: Jawahar Publishers & Distributors Rs. 327/-

    8.     Objective type questions on literature in English for UGC NET  (Paperback) by Bhim S. Dahiya. Rs. 250. Publisher: CEE BEE Publisher (2011) Purchase online

    (Bookmark this blog/Note - more links to come... :)

    Friday 8 November 2013

    Resources for Research in ELT - English Language Teaching

    The embedded Facebook Note does not display immediately. It takes some time and required faster internet connection. So, the content of the Note is copy - pasted here:

    Resources for Research in ELT - English Language Teaching

    Dear Friends,
    These days, the teachers & research scholars are more interested in Research in ELT. Here is the list of some important resources for those who are interested in English Language Teaching & Research.
    I found these videos quite interesting. The entire workshop by Prof Simon Borg is in four parts. You will find all four parts embedded here under: Doing Good Quality ELT Research - Prof Simon Borg (3rd ELT Malta Conference ReSIG Supported Pre-conference Event)

    I request readers to contribute thier best resouces for ELT by posting comments under this Note.
    Cautionary: This is 'not' the best and the final list of 'Top 10' ELT resources.

    ELT Journal is a quarterly publication for all those involved in the field of teaching English as a second or foreign language. The Journal links the everyday concerns of practitioners with insights gained from related academic disciplines such as applied linguistics, education, psychology, and sociology.

    The Asian EFL Journal is published monthly and presents information, theories, research, methods and materials related to language acquisition and language learning. An academic Second Language Acquisition Research Journal.The Asian EFL Journal is one of the world's leading refereed and indexed journals for second language research.

    The TeachingEnglish website
    TeachingEnglish is produced by the British Council with content and editorial support from the British Broadcasting Corporation. Both organisations receive funding from the UK government for their work in promoting English, supporting English language teaching (ELT) and providing information and access to ELT products, services and expertise from the UK. All teaching material on the site is free to access.

    This resource aims:
    • to promote quality online English courses that offer personal tuition 
    • to provide an organised database of links to quality learning resources for students 
    • to provide a database of links to quality web resources for teachers and researchers 
    • to provide a database for consultancy services in academic English online

      A very good resource with links of ELT related journals.

      If you are an English student or a teacher, this site can help you develop your skills and experience through English courses, teacher training courses, exams, online courses, information resources and networks.

      Published every three months,Horizons is the free journal of David’s English Teaching World. Available to download in PDF format, Horizons is a true reflection of what’s happening in the world of English teaching today.

      A blog worth following for those who are interested in technology and ELT.

      Visit this site to get updates on latest books published by Cambridge University Press in India.

      Generally related to ELT and language learning, but also to the wider world of education as well.
      Curated by Richard Whiteside

    • Research Articles:

    1. Research Engagement in English Language Teaching. Simon Borg
    Despite the substantial amount of work which has been conducted into teachers’ research engagement in mainstream education, this topic has been awarded scant attention in the field of English language teaching. This paper presents the results of a survey representing the first stage of multi-method investigation of research engagement in ELT. Moderate levels of reading and doing research were reported by the sample studied here, and this level of research engagement is analysed in relation to two key factors also examined in the survey: teacher’s conceptions of research and their perceptions of the institutional research culture.

    Ph.D. Research Writing - 'ONLY' in English Language: UGC, New Delhi, India

    How to teach poetry? : An Enigma!

    (One of th M.Phil students Alpesh Parmar posted message on FB asking to share something on 'how to teach poetry?'... this note is written extempore for him... which may be helpful to others as well... I request all the readers of this note to contribute something by sharing your experince of teaching poetry by commenting on this note)

    Dear Friends,
    Teaching poetry is not everyone's cup of tea. There is no fun in the world as great as teaching it to those who love it... there is nothing as boring as teaching poetry to those who hate it. It is so because (to quote Yuri Lotman) - ‘A poem is both a system of rules, and a system of their violation’.

    Reading/Teaching poetry is not as easy as one thinks. It necessisates undertanding of culture (in/for which it is written), history (historiography of metaphors, semantics etc) and above all linguistic competency.
    Here is the list of books and websites which may help teachers and students in reading/teaching poetry:
    • Books:
    1. Terry Eagleton: How to read a poem? Blackwell Publisher (2006). TERRY EAGLETON’S book seeks to teach its readers how to read poems through a combination of literary history, theoretical discussion, and leading by example. The book develops a simple and unshowy working definition of poetry (‘a certain memorable or inventive use of language, and a moral insight into human existence’), but at the same time suggests a correspondence between the best poetry and a kind of productive contradiction … (read Jonathan Baines's  full article on
    2. I.A. Richards: Pratical Criticism (1920) From his practical experiments into 'reading poems' at Cambidge University, I A Richards drew 'a list of principle difficulties that may be encountered by any reader in the presence of any poem. This analysis was in part intended to develop educational method to teach poetry in the classroom. (read Robert Shaffer's full article on
    3. Elaine Showalter: Teaching Literature Blackwell Publisher (2003). Drawing on 40 years of international teaching experience, as well as the real life experiences of friends and colleagues in the field,Showalter offers original and provocative reflections on teaching literature in higher education, and addresses practical, theoretical, and methodological issues.
    • Websites:
    Whenever students come with such questions which can't be answered, the easy way is to give him 'list' of books - whcih are unattainable... there are at least two benefits of doing this - (i) As teachers, we can create a favourable impression - of knowing names of so many books and we speak on those books with such an air of authority - as if we have written it or 'read' it - (ii) it helps in establishing superiority over student's lack of knowledge. But the best of all is - students will never dare to come agian to ask for anything.
    I believe, if teacher 'really' want to 'share' with students, he should give books instead of lists - or atleast photocopies of important pages. I find easy way in sharing weblinks. Click and go...

    Well, these weblinks are not as goos as the books listed above but it will serve the purpose of two-minute-maggie to hungry child - just as maggie does not give nutritions but helps in satisfying hunger - similarly, these weblinks are not 'nutritious' but it surely will cater the needs of hungry mind - i would be glad if it makes you more hungry to read the books.
    4. (read chapter 4 on Teaching Poetry from Elaine Shawalter's book 'Teaching Literature')

    Literary Theory and Criticism in the Digital Age

    A Pride of Asiatic Lions (Gir Lions) and a Gir Cow with her Calf

    Research Ideas in English Language Teaching