Wednesday 15 February 2023

Dissertation Writing


Research Project Writing: Dissertation Writing

Course Objectives:

The learning objectives for writing a dissertation can be organized using Bloom's Taxonomy, which categorizes educational goals into six levels:

1.       Remembering: recall relevant information from memory, such as key concepts and theories related to the dissertation topic.

2.       Understanding: comprehend the meaning of the information and how it relates to the dissertation topic.

3.       Applying: use the information to solve problems or make decisions relevant to the dissertation topic.

4.       Analyzing: break down the information into component parts and understand how they relate to each other and to the dissertation topic as a whole.

5.       Evaluating: make judgments about the value or quality of the information and its relevance to the dissertation topic.

6.       Creating: use the information to generate new ideas, designs or theories related to the dissertation topic.

For example, a dissertation on the impact of social media on political participation, the learning objectives could be:

1.       Remembering key theories of political participation

2.       Understanding how social media affects political participation

3.       Applying data analysis techniques to study the relationship between social media and political participation

4.       Analyzing the impact of social media on different groups' political participation

5.       Evaluating the strengths and limitations of existing studies on the topic

6.       Creating new hypotheses or theories about the relationship between social media and political participation.

For more examples, visit study material website >



Marks: 70 | Hours: 60 | Credit - 4


  • The dissertation of 75 to 100 pages or 20,000 to 25,000 words shall be submitted to the University.

  • The format of writing dissertation shall be as given below:

    • Font Size: 16 - Main Title of the Chapter > 14 Sub-titles within the chapter > 12 for main content.

    • Line Space: 1.5 line space.

    • Print: On both sides of the pages

    • Bind: Spiral 

    • The dissertation shall be approved by the Department teacher/s and duly forwarded through the Head of the Department.

The evaluation of the dissertations shall be done by internal and external examiners similar to that of answer books of MA – English programme.

Internal evaluation in form of presentation shall be carried out at the Department in presence of the Head of the Department and/or concerned teacher / supervisor. 


Continuous Internal Evaluation

Presentation - 25 Marks

Seminar / attendance - 05 Marks

Written Test - 00 Marks


Integration of ICT for blog, presentation, video resources will be integral part of CIA. All works produced by the students for internal evaluation shall be presented as digital portfolio.

Course Specific Learning Outcome:

1.   Remember: Students will be able to recall key concepts, theories, and research methods related to dissertation writing.

2.   Understand: Students will be able to explain the purpose and significance of their research topic, as well as the research methods they plan to use.

3.   Apply: Students will be able to use appropriate research methods to collect and analyze data for their dissertation.

4.   Analyze: Students will be able to critically evaluate and interpret their data, and integrate it with existing literature to make original conclusions and recommendations.

5.   Evaluate: Students will be able to assess the limitations and implications of their research, and consider potential future directions for further study.

6.   Create: Students will be able to compose a well-written, coherent dissertation that effectively communicates their research findings and conclusions.

These course-specific learning outcomes focus on the cognitive process of dissertation writing and how students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of the subject matter, and the skills they've acquired by the end of the course.

Suggesting Reading List:

Sunday 5 February 2023

Gurudiksha: A Journey towards Hybrid Class and Blended Learning for Sainik School Teachers

 "Guru-Diksha: A Journey towards Hybrid Class and Blended Learning for Sainik School Teachers"

The Indian Institute of Teacher Education in Gandhinagar, Gujarat recently conducted a faculty development programme named Guru-Diksha, which was specifically designed for teachers of Sainik Schools across India. As a trainer, I was given the responsibility of making teachers proficient in live demonstrations and collaborative tools for blended learning, along with the hybrid class concept.

The programme was conducted over 9 batches throughout the year 2022, with each batch inviting a group of 80-100 teachers from different states of India. The objective was to provide teachers with the latest knowledge and skills in blended learning and hybrid class, so that they could impart quality education to their students.

The experience of serving as a trainer in Guru-Diksha was an enriching one, as I got to interact with teachers from all over India. The programme provided a platform for exchanging ideas, learning from each other, and coming up with innovative teaching strategies.

In conclusion, Guru-Diksha was a successful initiative aimed at empowering Sainik School teachers through blended learning and hybrid class. The training sessions helped to create a more interactive and engaging learning environment for students and paved the way for a bright future in education.

Session: Hybrid Class: Live Demo & Blended Learning: Collaborative Tools
Resource Person: Dilip Barad, Prof. and Head, Dept. of English, M K Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar

In these sessions, a presentation was made on the integration of technology in education, specifically in the digital era. The session covered the importance of technology integration in education and the outcome of a survey on being a teacher in the digital era, which included the necessary tools in a teacher's tool kit. The presentation also highlighted the concept of Hybrid Classroom, Blended Learning, and their demonstration with the required technology and tools. Furthermore, the pedagogical outcomes of hybrid class and blended learning were discussed. The concept of "digital native" and the readiness of teachers for the 21st century academic scene was also touched upon, along with the tools and techniques used in digital pedagogy such as LMS/CMS, digital communication links, online assessment, and digital portfolio. The presentation concluded with the demonstration of hybrid class and blended learning with the use of various tools and technology.

Finally, the need for a digital portfolio as a learning outcome in the digital era was also emphasized in the presentation. The digital portfolio was seen as the ultimate assessment of continuous internal evaluation and term-end examinations, playing a crucial role in the pedagogical outcome of hybrid class and blended learning. The use of technology and digital tools in education was demonstrated to help students showcase their learning journey and progress in a more interactive and engaging manner. The digital portfolio was emphasized as a crucial aspect of digital pedagogy and necessary for 21st-century learners and teachers.

Explanation of the chart:

The data shows that only a small proportion of the 618 teachers surveyed have established their own digital content sharing platforms. Only 59 teachers have a personal YouTube channel, 14 have a blog, and 7 have a website. This low adoption of digital tools suggests that many teachers may not fully understand the importance and benefits of using technology in their teaching practices.

The limited number of teachers with personal digital content sharing platforms implies that there is a need for increased professional development opportunities for teachers to develop their knowledge and skills in using technology for educational purposes. Such professional development could help teachers to create their own digital content and share it with their students in a more effective and engaging way.

In conclusion, the data highlights a significant gap in the use of digital tools by teachers. To ensure that teachers are able to effectively integrate technology into their teaching, it is crucial to provide them with opportunities to learn about the use of digital tools in pedagogy.

Inferences from about explanation:

It is not necessary for teachers in the 21st century to have their own video sharing channel and content sharing platform, but it can be beneficial. Having a presence on these platforms can provide teachers with an additional means of reaching and engaging with students and can also help to showcase their expertise and experience. However, it is important to note that not all teachers have the skills or resources to create and maintain these types of channels and platforms, and other methods of teaching and communication, such as in-person instruction or email, can still be effective. Ultimately, the tools a teacher uses will depend on their individual teaching style, their students' needs, and their school or organization's resources and policies.

In today's digital world, it is important for teachers to have a basic understanding of technology and its applications in education. Some of the key skills and competencies that teachers should aim to develop include:

Digital literacy: the ability to effectively use and navigate technology, including computer software, educational technology tools, and the internet.

Media and information literacy: the ability to critically evaluate and effectively use information from a variety of sources, including digital media.

Technology integration: the ability to effectively integrate technology into the curriculum and use it to support student learning.

Collaboration and communication: the ability to effectively communicate and collaborate with others using technology, including students, colleagues, and parents.

Data literacy: the ability to collect, analyze, and interpret data to inform instructional decision-making and evaluate student learning.

These skills can be developed through professional development opportunities, workshops, and online courses. Additionally, incorporating technology into the classroom and modeling its use for students can also help teachers develop these skills while supporting student learning.

Important observations:
Creating and sharing video resources and maintaining a blog or website can demonstrate a high level of digital literacy and technology competency for a teacher. However, it is important to note that these skills are not the only indicators of a teacher's technology proficiency. Other factors, such as the effective integration of technology in the classroom to support student learning, the ability to critically evaluate and use digital media and information, and the ability to collaborate and communicate with others using technology, also play important roles in determining a teacher's level of technology competency.

Moreover, it is also important to remember that not all teachers may have the skills or resources to create and maintain a YouTube channel or a website, and having these tools alone does not guarantee that a teacher is highly proficient in using technology to support student learning. The most important factor is how the teacher uses technology to enhance student learning and achieve educational goals.

Analysis of Survey Outcome:

I had the chance to get to know the teachers of Sainik School during the '2022 training year'. This was achieved through a survey conducted while preparing for session presentations. Out of the 850 teachers trained in 9 batches, 618 provided responses. The survey results are presented in various charts, with a breakdown and analysis of the outcomes shown below each chart.

The chart suggests that a significant number of teachers (90%) are using some form of an LMS, which requires a certain level of digital literacy and competence. The fact that 68% are using Google Classroom specifically could indicate that these teachers have a good understanding of how to use this specific platform. However, it's important to note that the data only provides information on teachers' use of LMS platforms and doesn't give a comprehensive picture of their overall digital skills and literacy.

The chart shows the usage of video conferencing tools by teachers during the COVID-19 lockdown and after normalcy has resumed. During the lockdown, almost all teachers used some form of video conferencing tool. After normalcy, however, a smaller proportion continued to use these tools.

The chart breaks down the usage of specific video conferencing tools, with 51% of teachers using Google Meet, 18% using MS Teams, 16% using Zoom, and the remaining using other platforms such as WebEx and Skype. This data suggests that a majority of teachers preferred to use Google Meet for video conferencing, followed by MS Teams and Zoom.
It's worth noting that this data only provides a snapshot of the usage of video conferencing tools by teachers and doesn't give a comprehensive picture of the reasons behind their usage or the challenges they may have faced while using these tools.

From this chart, we can infer the following:
Teachers widely used digital platforms to share course content, schedules of online sessions, and links to online tests.

WhatsApp was the most popular choice among teachers for sharing digital content, followed by Google Drive.

Other platforms such as Google Groups, individual emails, MS One Drive, Drop Box, LMS platforms, and websites were also used by a significant proportion of teachers.

This data suggests that teachers are embracing digital tools to facilitate the delivery of their courses and to keep students engaged and informed. However, it's important to note that this data only provides a snapshot of the usage of these digital platforms by teachers and doesn't give a comprehensive picture of their overall digital proficiency or the challenges they may have faced while using these tools.

From this chart, we can infer the following:

The majority of teachers (almost all) used some form of digital means to conduct online tests, indicating their digital skills and proficiency in using digital modes for testing or assessment.

The most widely used digital tool for conducting online tests was Google Form-Quiz, with 92% of teachers opting for this platform.

The remaining teachers used a variety of other web tools for conducting online tests.

This data suggests that the majority of teachers have a good understanding of how to use Google Form-Quiz, and are effectively using digital tools to conduct online assessments. It's crucial to keep in mind that this information only offers a brief glimpse into how teachers are utilizing these digital tools for online testing. It does not provide a complete understanding of their overall digital competency or the difficulties they may have encountered when utilizing these tools.

From this chart, we can infer the following:

The majority of teachers (91%) are not aware of the Open Broadcaster Software (OBS), and 94% are not aware of the app Droid Cam.

Awareness of these digital tools is seen as an indicator of teachers' proficiency in digital skills and their ability to effectively engage students in online, hybrid, blended, or flipped classrooms.

The fact that more than 90% of teachers are not aware of these tools is a cause for concern, as it suggests that a significant proportion of teachers are not equipped to teach in an online or hybrid environment.

This highlights the need for ongoing professional development and training for teachers to ensure they have the necessary digital skills and competencies to support student learning in the digital age.

Overall, the data implies that while most teachers are using digital tools for various aspects of teaching and learning, they may not have a full understanding of the potential of these tools and how to use them effectively. This raises concerns about the quality of education provided in online or hybrid environments.

The Digital Portfolios can be a very useful assessment tool for several reasons:

Comprehensive view of learning and growth: Digital portfolios provide a comprehensive view of students' learning and growth over time. It allows teachers to see how students are progressing and what areas they need to improve in.

Authentic and meaningful assessment: Digital portfolios offer a more authentic and meaningful assessment of students' knowledge and skills. They provide a platform for students to showcase their work and reflect on their learning process, which can provide deeper insights into their understanding of the subject.

Multimedia-rich: Digital portfolios can include a variety of multimedia resources, such as videos, audio recordings, images, and documents. This can provide a more engaging and interactive assessment experience for students.

Easy to share: Digital portfolios can be easily shared with teachers, classmates, parents, and other stakeholders, making it a convenient tool for communication and collaboration.

However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of digital portfolios as an assessment tool depends on the way they are implemented and used. Teachers need to have a clear understanding of their potential benefits, as well as the necessary skills and resources to create and use them effectively.
From the about chart on ‘Awareness about digital portfolio’, we can infer the following:

The majority of teachers (85%) are not aware of digital portfolios and their potential as an assessment tool.

Despite the potential benefits of digital portfolios, there is a significant lack of awareness and understanding of its use among teachers.

None of the teachers who are aware of digital portfolios use it as an assessment tool.

This highlights a need for education institutes to invest in teacher training and professional development programs that focus on digital portfolio creation and assessment.

This will not only increase teachers' awareness and understanding of digital portfolios, but also provide students with a more meaningful and authentic assessment of their learning and progress.

Overall, the data suggests that while digital portfolios have the potential to provide a comprehensive view of students' learning and growth, there is a significant gap in teachers' awareness and understanding of their use, and a lack of implementation as an assessment tool in educational institutes.
Here is a summary of the discussion:

In the data provided, it was found that almost 90% of teachers used Learning Management Systems (LMS) and 68% used Google Classroom. This reflects that a large majority of teachers are proficient in using digital tools for conducting classes.

Another chart showed that most teachers used video conferencing tools during the Covid-19 lockdown, with 51% using Google Meet and 18% using MS Teams. This shows that teachers were able to quickly adapt to online teaching during the lockdown.

The data also showed that most teachers shared course content and online test links through digital platforms like WhatsApp and Google Drive. This reflects the teachers' digital literacy and their ability to use technology for teaching purposes.

Another data point showed that almost all teachers used digital tools for online testing, with 92% using Google Forms-Quiz. This demonstrates the teachers' proficiency in using technology for assessment purposes.

On the other hand, the data also showed that a significant majority (91% and 94%) of teachers were not aware of tools like Open Broadcaster Software (OBS) and Droid Cam, which could potentially be useful for online and hybrid teaching.

Finally, the data showed that 85% of teachers were not aware of digital portfolios, and none of them used it as an assessment tool. This suggests a lack of understanding and implementation of digital portfolios as an assessment tool in educational institutes.

Overall, the data reflects that while teachers have been able to adapt to using digital tools for teaching and assessment purposes, there is still a need for improvement in their understanding and use of certain tools and technologies, particularly those related to hybrid classroom, blended teaching practice and digital portfolios.

Tuesday 31 January 2023

Modern Theories of Criticism: An Overview

Modern Theories of Criticism: An Overview

[Note: This presentation and video recording are of Prof. Dilip Barad's session in the Refresher Course for College / University teachers. The Refresher Course was organised by UGC-HRDC, University of Mumbai.]

Modern Literary Theory and Criticism refers to the examination and interpretation of literature using various theoretical frameworks that emerged in the 20th century. This approach encompasses diverse schools of thought such as Marxist, Feminist, Psychoanalytic, and Deconstructionist theory that offer a critical lens to analyze literary texts and reveal their deeper meanings and societal impact. The purpose of this introduction is to provide a comprehensive overview of the key concepts, influential figures, and historical developments in Modern Literary Theory and Criticism, highlighting its significance and impact in the field of literary studies.

Literary criticism, the evaluation and interpretation of literature, is an important aspect of literary studies. Over the years, various theories of criticism have emerged, each offering a unique perspective on the reading and interpretation of literature. This presentation outlines some of the major theories of criticism, starting from Matthew Arnold’s “A Study of Poetry” (1888) and T.S. Eliot’s “Tradition and Individual Talent” (1919) to the latest theories of digital humanities.

The earliest theories of criticism include the works of I.A. Richards, who presented the practical criticism approach in his book “Practical Criticism” (1929). William Empson’s “Seven Types of Ambiguity” (1930) also played a significant role in the development of criticism. Later, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley introduced the concepts of intentional and affective fallacies in their work.

In the 1930s, Allen Tate introduced the theory of “tension” in poetry, which dealt with the extension (literal meaning) and intension (metaphorical meaning) of a text. Cleanth Brooks, in his works “The Language of Paradox, The Well Wrought Urn” (1947) and “Modern Poetry and the Tradition” (1939), focused on the language of paradox in poetry.

Archetypal criticism, which is concerned with the study of archetypes and symbols in literature, was developed by Maud Bodkin (1934) and Northrop Frye (1940-50). Frye’s theory of the mythos grid, which outlines the universal themes and patterns in literature, is an important contribution to the field of archetypal criticism.

In the latter half of the 20th century, structuralism and semiotics gave rise to stylistics, which deals with the study of style in literature. Deconstruction and poststructuralism, as propounded by Jacques Derrida, also had a major impact on the field of criticism. 

Eco-criticism, which looks at the relationship between literature and the environment, and eco-feminism, which critiques the patriarchal values embedded in society, also gained prominence.

Postcolonialism, which deals with the study of the cultural, political and economic effects of colonialism, was developed by thinkers like Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, and Homi Bhabha. In recent times, the focus has shifted to globalization and climate change, which has given rise to contemporary theories of cultural studies.

Digital Humanities, a field that uses technology to analyze and process literary texts, has also emerged as a significant area of study. The rise of generative literature, where texts are produced by computers, has raised new challenges for critics. The principles and processes of generative literature have been outlined by Jean-Pierre Balpe. The use of AI in digital humanities has raised questions about unconscious bias and the morality of robots, which require further study.

In conclusion, the field of criticism has undergone several transformations over the years, each adding to our understanding of literature. From the earliest works of Arnold and Eliot to the latest theories of digital humanities, the field has constantly evolved to keep pace with changing times. The new challenges posed by AI and the increasing influence of technology on the field only serve to emphasize the ongoing relevance of criticism in our rapidly changing world.


Video Recording of the Session:

ChatGPT in Literature Classroom - Waiting for Godot

The Use of ChatGPT in English Literature Classroom: Teaching 'Waiting for Godot'

As technology continues to play a larger role in our daily lives, it's not surprising that it has also made its way into the classroom. At Department of English, M K Bhavnagar University, we decided to experiment with ChatGPT, a large language model developed by OpenAI, as a teaching tool in our English literature class in teaching 'Waiting for Godot'. While many educators might be concerned that using AI in the classroom could lead to students becoming overly reliant on technology and cheating, our approach was to use ChatGPT in a way that encouraged critical thinking and independent learning.

We designed worksheets that tested students' abilities to interpret and analyze works of literature. Rather than providing direct answers to questions, we asked students to respond to questions that even ChatGPT couldn't answer accurately. For example, students were asked to reflect on why a few leaves grow on a barren tree in a play, if European nations can be inferred from the names of characters, the significance of a conversation between two characters in different acts, and the meaning of certain terms used in a character's speech.

The worksheet:

The goal of this exercise was to help students develop their own interpretations and opinions, rather than relying solely on the answers provided by ChatGPT. By cross-checking with original texts and coming up with their own answers, students were able to gain a deeper understanding of the literature and develop their critical thinking skills.

Of course, this approach wouldn't be suitable for all types of courses or learning environments, but in the context of a literature class, it can be an effective way to encourage independent learning and critical thinking. By using technology in a way that supports these goals, rather than replacing human understanding, we can help students become more engaged and confident learners.

In conclusion, our experiment with ChatGPT in the English department at M K Bhavnagar University has shown that technology can be a valuable tool in the classroom, as long as it's used in a way that supports students' critical thinking and independent learning. By asking students to respond to questions that even ChatGPT couldn't answer accurately, we were able to encourage them to think deeply about literature and develop their own interpretations and opinions.

Learning Outcomes:

The learning outcomes of this experiment with ChatGPT in the classroom could be aligned with various levels of Bloom's Taxonomy, including:

  1. Remembering: Students were able to recall details and themes from the play, "Waiting for Godot."

  2. Understanding: Students demonstrated understanding of the play by analyzing characters and their motivations, interpreting symbols and motifs, and making connections to historical and cultural contexts.

  3. Applying: Students applied their knowledge by answering questions about the play, such as explaining the meaning of terms used in Lucky's speech.

  4. Analyzing: Students analyzed the conversation between Vladimir and the Boy in both Acts, evaluating the significance of their interactions.

  5. Evaluating: Students evaluated the suggestion that suicide is a better solution to the tramp's predicament than waiting.

  6. Creating: Students engaged in creative thinking by offering their own interpretations of the play and connecting it to Sartre's concept of "Bad Faith."

Through this experiment, students were challenged to use higher-level thinking skills and engage with the material in a more meaningful and critical way. The design of the worksheets allowed students to rely on their own interpretations, encouraging independent thinking and intellectual growth.

Monday 30 January 2023

Research Publication Guidelines for the Beginners

 Research Publication: Guidelines for the Beginners

Publishing a Research Paper: A Step-by-Step Guide

Writing a research paper is a critical part of an academic career. Whether you are presenting it in a seminar, conference, or sending it for peer review, it is important to understand the process of publishing a research paper. In this article, we will discuss the typical steps involved in publishing a research paper, so you can get your work out there and make a lasting impact on your field of study.

1. Identifying the research area 

The first step in publishing a research paper is identifying the area you want to focus on. This requires you to reflect on your interests and expertise, and decide on a topic that aligns with your goals.

2. Deciding on a topic for research paper

Once you have identified the research area, the next step is to decide on a specific topic for your research paper. You need to choose a topic that is both relevant and meaningful, and that you have enough knowledge and experience to write about.

3. Problem statement or question to be answered
Next, you need to frame a problem statement or a question to be answered through your research. This will provide the foundation for your research, and help you stay focused throughout the process.

4. Literature Review
Once you have framed the problem statement or question, you need to conduct a comprehensive literature review. This involves reviewing existing research in your area of study, and identifying gaps in the current knowledge.

5. Methods and Methodology
The next step is to determine the methods and methodology you will use in your research. Method refers to the technique used to collect and organize data, such as fieldwork, questionnaires, and databases. Methodology refers to the critical approach used to interpret the data collected, including the political position and interpretive strategies of the researcher.

6. Critical Analysis and Interpretation
After collecting and analyzing the data, you need to critically evaluate the findings and draw conclusions. This includes interpreting the results and drawing insights from the data.

7. Conclusion
Finally, you need to summarize your findings and provide recommendations for future research in your conclusion. This is your opportunity to demonstrate the significance of your research, and to provide insights into the broader implications of your findings.

8. Choosing a Journal
Once your research paper is complete, the next step is to choose a suitable journal for publishing your work. This involves considering factors such as the scope and focus of the journal, and the audience you want to reach.

9. Writing your paper
The next step is to write your paper, following the guidelines and format of the chosen journal. This involves organizing your research and presenting it in a clear and concise manner.

10. Making your submission
Once you have written your paper, you need to make a formal submission to the journal. This involves following the submission guidelines, including providing an abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.

11. Navigating the peer review process
The peer review process involves having your paper reviewed by experts in your field. This is an important step in the publication process, as it helps ensure the quality and validity of your work.

12. The production process
Finally, once your paper has been reviewed and accepted for publication, the final step is the production process. This involves working with the journal to prepare your paper for publication, including finalizing the format and layout, and incorporating any revisions or corrections recommended by the reviewer.

In conclusion, publishing a research paper involves a series of steps that require careful planning and attention to detail. By following these steps, you can ensure that your research is communicated effectively and reaches the right audience.
ALA, A. (2011, October 10). Publication Guidelines and Procedures [Text]. Public Library Association (PLA).
APA, A. (n.d.). Research and publication. Https://Apastyle.Apa.Org. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from
Nature, S. (n.d.). Submission guidelines | Scientific Reports. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from
OpenEdition, A. (2022, November 28). Guidelines for Submission and Publication of Manuscripts [Text]. Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais; ​​Centro de Estudos Sociais da Universidade de Coimbra.
Patwardhan, B. (2015). Guidelines for Research Publications.
PLOS, A. (2020, September 16). Understanding the Publishing Process. PLOS.
TandF, A. (n.d.). How to publish your research. Author Services. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from


Video Recording:

This video is about a workshop on research methodology organized by the Postgraduate Department of English at DAV College in Chandigarh. The workshop was attended by around 70 participants who were mostly Master's students. The speaker in the video, Professor Dilip Barad, is a guest speaker and is sharing his views on research publication guidelines for beginners. He explains that the first step in publishing a research article or research paper is writing a research paper and the participants are given a small activity to identify a research area and topic. He then moves on to the second and third steps of reading the research paper in seminars, conferences or sending it for peer review and publishing it as a research article.