Sunday 27 August 2023

Gender and Language

Gender and Language: Challenging Stereotypes and Fostering Inclusion

Dilip Barad


Language is a powerful tool that not only reflects our thoughts but also shapes them. It carries the potential to reinforce or challenge societal norms, including those related to gender. In the pursuit of equality and justice, both UNESCO and the Supreme Court of India recognize the crucial role of language in combating gender stereotypes. UNESCO's 1999 Guidelines on Gender-Neutral Language and the Supreme Court of India's 2023 Handbook on Combating Gender Stereotypes provide valuable insights into reshaping our language to create a more inclusive and equitable society.

UNESCO's Guidelines on Gender-Neutral Language

UNESCO's commitment to justice and non-discrimination in education is evident in its call to transform behavior and attitudes that perpetuate the social exclusion of women. One of the fundamental aspects addressed by UNESCO is the use of gender-neutral language. The organization acknowledges that language is not merely a reflection of our thoughts but also influences them. When language perpetuates the assumption of male superiority, it becomes imperative to adapt our language as our ideas evolve. Ambiguous language that defaults to male imagery or perpetuates stereotypes can inadvertently contribute to bias, discrimination, and demeaning perceptions. By urging individuals to be more mindful of their language choices, UNESCO emphasizes the importance of precision and sensitivity in communication.

The Supreme Court of India's Handbook on Combating Gender Stereotypes

The Supreme Court of India's 2023 Handbook serves as a beacon for the legal community, specifically judges, in challenging harmful gender stereotypes. It recognizes that stereotypes often find their way into our thoughts and expressions due to societal conditioning. While acknowledging the inevitability of encountering stereotypes, the handbook stresses the significance of identifying and addressing them to foster an equal and inclusive society. In the realm of judiciary, the handbook underscores the pivotal role judges play in combating stereotypes. Relying on stereotypes in judicial decision-making distorts the objective application of the law, perpetuating discrimination and exclusion.

The handbook takes a three-pronged approach to address gender stereotypes:

Language Transformation: The handbook provides guidance on identifying language that reinforces stereotypes and offers alternative words and phrases that promote gender neutrality. By consciously choosing words that encompass all genders, the judiciary can contribute to dismantling stereotypes deeply ingrained in language.

Challenging Reasoning Patterns: The handbook sheds light on common reasoning patterns rooted in gender stereotypes, particularly concerning women, and explains why they are flawed. This empowers judges to critically assess their judgments and decisions, ensuring they are free from the influence of prejudiced notions.

Precedents and Rejecting Stereotypes: The handbook highlights binding decisions by the Supreme Court of India that have explicitly rejected gender stereotypes. Judges can draw from these cases to counter stereotypes in their decisions and writings, thereby contributing to a more impartial application of the law.


Language shapes our perceptions and attitudes, and its power can be harnessed to dismantle harmful gender stereotypes. The combined efforts of organizations like UNESCO and the judiciary, as exemplified by the Supreme Court of India's handbook, underscore the importance of language as a catalyst for change. By choosing words thoughtfully, challenging biased reasoning, and drawing from legal precedents, we can collectively pave the way for a more equitable, inclusive, and compassionate society where gender-neutral language reflects and reinforces the principles of justice and equality.


Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2003). Language and Gender. Cambridge University Press.

Hyde, J. S. (2005). The Gender Similarities Hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60(6), 581-592.

Lakoff, R. T. (1975). Language and Woman's Place. Language in Society, 2(1), 45-80.

Shaw, S. (2020). Women, Language and Politics. India: Cambridge University Press.

Spender, D. (1980). Man Made Language. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Supreme Court of India. (2023). Handbook on Combating Gender Stereotypes.

UNESCO. (1999). Guidelines on Gender-Neutral Language.

Thursday 20 July 2023

Sandeep Bhaiya TVF


Umeed tootne pe zindagi bhi naaraz hoti hai par hote hain kuch log jinhe haar manzoor nahi! Sandeep Bhaiya is a character who never accepted failure and always motivated others to achieve their goals too. This show revolves around his journey from being a UPSC student to becoming a civil servant. #TVF #SandeepBhaiya #UPSC #UpscMotivation #IAS Directed by: Parijat Joshi Story: Shreyansh Pandey, Nitin Tiwari, Siddhartha Tiwari Written by: Siddhartha Tiwari, Nitin Tiwari Executive Producers: Vijay Koshy, Shreyansh Pandey, Anandeshwar Dwivedi Associate Producers: Jitendra Kumar, Mittal Sangle, Shivani Sinha Supervising Producer: Uteja Sharma Creative Producer: Nitin Tiwari D.O.P: Sreechith Vijayan Damodar Editor: Tushar Manocha Music: Rishi Dutta Post Production: Gaurav Rungta, Garvit Janshali Casting: Navrattan Mehta Costume Stylist: Yashika Kakkar Production Designer: Abhimanyu Jai Cast: Sunny Hinduja, Deepali Gautam, Punit Tiwari, Rajendra Gupta, Abhinav Anand

SK Sir Ki Class TVF


Credits: Directed by: Pratish Mehta Written by: Prashant Kumar Executive Producers: Vijay Koshy, Deepak Kumar Mishra, Anandeshwar Dwivedi Associate Producers: Jitendra Kumar, Mittal Sangle Creative Producer: Pankaj Kothawade D.O.P: Shreedutta Namjoshi Editors: Sarvesh Bhatt, Sidhhant Pandagale Background Score: Rohan Rohan Post Production: Gaurav Rungta, Garvit Janshali Production Designer: Beeva Mahajan Costume Stylist: Yashika Kakkar Cast: Abhilash Thapliyal, Gagan Arora, Shivankit Singh Parihar, Badri Chavan, Rajesh Jais, Venus Singh #TVF #SKSirKiClass #UPSC #TVFxMeta #SKSirInMetaverse

Sunday 28 May 2023

Hypothesis - PhD Coursework

Research Hypothesis

Dilip Barad


This comprehensive lecture series delves into the multifaceted realm of hypotheses in academic research, encompassing their origins, formulations, analyses, and applications. Hypothesis-I traces the linguistic roots of the term "hypothesis" to its Latin and Greek foundations, elucidating its role as a tentative proposition subject to empirical scrutiny. Emphasizing its significance as an initial step in scientific investigation, the lecture underscores the necessity of clear definitions and operational terms, delineating hypotheses from established theories. In Hypothesis-II, the discourse expands to examine hypotheses in both quantitative and qualitative research. In qualitative studies, hypotheses aid in unearthing thematic patterns, while their quantitative counterparts guide rigorous variable analysis. Hypothesis-III, the third installment, delves into crafting effective research questions and hypotheses. A thorough differentiation between quantitative and qualitative paradigms unfolds, encompassing diverse question and hypothesis types. The lecture series culminates in Hypothesis-IV, where pragmatic considerations in developing hypotheses take the spotlight. Ethical, feasible, and relevant criteria are probed, bolstered by frameworks like PICOT and FINER MAPS. The construction of impactful research questions and hypotheses is elucidated through a six-step process, which harmonizes contextual understanding, problem identification, preliminary research, hypothesis formulation, and study aim articulation. This comprehensive exposition navigates the nuanced landscape of hypotheses, concurrently mapping their evolution from nascent propositions to research catalysts across diverse academic domains.


 hypothesis, academic research, qualitative research, quantitative research, research questions, frameworks

 Hypothesis - Ph.D. Coursework

1. Hypothesis - I:

  • The lecture is about the topic of hypothesis in academic research.
  • The etymology of the word "hypothesis" is traced back to Latin and Greek roots, emphasizing its foundation and groundwork.
  • A hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction about the relationship between variables.
  • It is a statement that can be tested through scientific research and requires specific definitions and operational terms.
  • A hypothesis is not a proven theory or fact, but a starting point for further investigation and is subject to revision based on research findings.

If the video is not played here, please visit this link to watch the video:
In this lecture on PhD coursework, Professor Dilip Barad discusses the topic of hypothesis in academic research. The etymology of the word "hypothesis" reveals its Latin and Greek roots, highlighting the importance of laying a foundation for research. A hypothesis is not merely a preposition, but rather a result of groundwork and scientific thinking.

A hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction about the relationship between variables. It is based on limited evidence and requires further testing and verification. Variables play a crucial role in hypothesis formulation, with independent variables being the ones that can be changed, dependent variables being what is observed or measured, and controlled variables being the ones that remain constant.

A hypothesis is not a proven theory or fact, but rather a starting point for further investigation. It requires scientific research and testing to determine its validity. If research findings do not support the hypothesis, it may need to be revised or even abandoned. Hypotheses inform the collection of relevant data and enhance objectivity in research.

It is important to differentiate between a hypothesis and a proven theory. A hypothesis is falsifiable and subject to empirical testing, whereas a theory has been extensively supported by evidence. The lecture also touches on the challenges of verifying hypotheses in qualitative research and the meaningfulness of hypotheses in different fields like ethics and aesthetics.

Overall, the lecture emphasizes the significance of hypothesis in academic research as a tool for making predictions, guiding data collection, and advancing scientific understanding.

2. Hypothesis-II:

  • The speaker discusses the purpose and analysis of hypothesis in quantitative and qualitative research.
  • In qualitative research, hypothesis formulation helps uncover themes and develop a general understanding of the topic.
  • In quantitative research, hypothesis testing and confirmation play a vital role in narrowing down variables and producing high-quality data.
  • If the video is not playing or visible here, click this link to watch video:

The speaker, Professor Dilip Bharat, discusses the purpose and analysis of hypothesis in both quantitative and qualitative research.

In qualitative research, the purpose of a hypothesis is to formulate a general understanding of a topic and uncover themes. It helps researchers obtain deeper information about a subject and serves as a foundation for developing research questions and hypotheses. Qualitative research often precedes quantitative research, providing a baseline understanding that allows for the formulation of hypotheses related to correlation and causation. While quantitative researchers consider hypotheses essential, qualitative researchers primarily use them to frame their analysis and interpret the data, moving from a hypothesis to a broader theory.

On the other hand, in quantitative research, hypotheses play a crucial role in testing and confirming expected outcomes. These hypotheses are educated statements based on background research and current knowledge. They make specific predictions about the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Quantitative research relies on statistical analysis and structured data sets, often analyzed using software tools like Excel, R, or SPSS. Hypothesis formulation in quantitative research helps narrow down variables and ensures a controlled research outline to generate high-quality data.

The analysis of data differs between qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative research generates highly textual data, where researchers identify key themes and patterns by reading and analyzing the text. In contrast, quantitative research produces data sets that can be analyzed using statistical software and includes factors such as ratings, rankings, and metrics. The analysis approaches and questions raised from the data also vary between the two research types.

The transcript highlights the interconnectedness between research questions and hypotheses. Research questions aim to answer specific aspects of a study after data analysis and interpretation. In qualitative research, research questions hold great importance, particularly for fields like literature, psychology, sociology, and history, where interpretations play a significant role. In quantitative research, research questions are fewer, and hypotheses take precedence, providing specific predictions to be tested and explored.

In summary, the lecture explains that the purpose and analysis of hypotheses differ in quantitative and qualitative research. Qualitative research employs hypotheses to uncover themes and develop a general understanding, while quantitative research relies on hypotheses to test and confirm expected outcomes. The analysis of data also varies, with qualitative research focusing on textual analysis and quantitative research utilizing statistical tools. The lecture emphasizes the interconnectedness between research questions and hypotheses, with qualitative research placing more emphasis on research questions and quantitative research prioritizing hypotheses.

3. Hypothesis-III

  • This is Part 3 of a lecture series on hypothesis in academic research for a PhD coursework.
  • The speaker discusses the characteristics of good research questions and hypotheses.
  • It explains the differences between quantitative and qualitative research questions and hypotheses.
  • Quantitative research questions can be descriptive, comparative, or relationship-based, while qualitative research questions can be contextual, descriptive, evaluative, explanatory, or generative.
  • The transcript also mentions different types of quantitative and qualitative hypotheses, such as simple, complex, directional, associative, null, and alternative hypotheses.
  • If the video is not playing or not visible, please click this link to watch video:

In Part 3 of the lecture series on hypothesis in academic research for a PhD coursework, the speaker, Professor Dilip, discusses the characteristics of good research questions and hypotheses. He emphasizes that excellent research questions should be specific and focused, integrating collective data and observations to confirm or refute subsequent hypotheses. On the other hand, good hypotheses should be empirically testable, backed by preliminary evidence, testable by ethical research, based on original ideas, supported by evidence-based logical reasoning, and capable of being predicted.

The lecture further explores the differences between quantitative and qualitative research questions and hypotheses. Quantitative research questions can fall into three categories: descriptive, comparative, and relationship-based. In contrast, qualitative research questions cover a broader range, including contextual, descriptive, evaluative, explanatory, and generative questions. It is interesting to note that while quantitative research questions generate multiple hypotheses due to the various variables involved, qualitative research questions typically generate only one hypothesis.

The lecture provides examples of different types of hypotheses for both quantitative and qualitative research. For quantitative research, these include simple, complex, directional, associative, null, and alternative hypotheses. Each type of hypothesis serves a distinct purpose, such as predicting relationships, describing interdependencies, or clarifying differences. In qualitative research, hypotheses may emerge from the exploration of subjective experiences, allowing for the formulation of formal hypotheses that can be tested in future quantitative approaches.

The speaker also highlights the importance of understanding the natural context of real-world problems and tailoring research questions and hypotheses accordingly. He discusses examples such as the experiences of nurses working night shifts during the COVID-19 pandemic or the forms of disrespect and abuse experienced by individuals in specific contexts.

Overall, this part of the lecture series delves into the technicalities of understanding hypotheses in academic research. While the information may not directly apply to all research endeavors, it provides valuable insights for formulating research questions and hypotheses in various contexts.

4. Hypothesis-IV:

  • The video is from the fourth and final part of a Ph.D. coursework on research questions and hypotheses wherein the criteria for developing research questions and hypotheses, including feasibility, interest, novelty, ethics, and relevance are discussed.
  • It mentions frameworks such as PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time Frame) and FINER MAPS (Feasibility, Interest, Novelty, Ethical, Relevant, Manageable, Appropriate, Potential Value, Publishable, Systematic).
  • The video outlines six important points for constructing effective research questions and hypotheses, including clarifying the background, identifying the research problem, conducting preliminary research, constructing research questions, formulating hypotheses, and stating the study aims.
  • The video also highlights the differences between quantitative and qualitative research in terms of forming research questions, hypotheses, and conclusions.
  • If the video is not visible or not playing here, please click this link to watch the video:

This is the final part of a Ph.D. coursework on research questions and hypotheses. The video emphasizes the importance of developing research questions and hypotheses that meet certain criteria. It introduces frameworks like PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time Frame) and FINER MAPS (Feasibility, Interest, Novelty, Ethical, Relevant, Manageable, Appropriate, Potential Value, Publishable, Systematic) to guide the process.

The video outlines six key points for constructing effective research questions and hypotheses. Firstly, it is essential to clarify the background of the study. Secondly, researchers need to identify the research problem within a specific time frame. Thirdly, conducting preliminary research and reviewing existing knowledge is crucial to formulating research questions. Fourthly, researchers should construct specific research questions that investigate the identified problems and identify the necessary variables for assessment. Fifthly, researchers need to formulate specific deductive or inductive predictions in the form of hypotheses. Finally, they should state the aims of the study.

The video also distinguishes between quantitative and qualitative research in terms of forming research questions, hypotheses, and conclusions. For quantitative research, researchers need to test or verify hypotheses, whereas qualitative research focuses on formulating research questions and choosing appropriate methods, sites, and subjects for the study. The conclusion of a qualitative study can lead to the formulation of new hypotheses for further research.

Overall, the video provides guidance on developing research questions and hypotheses that adhere to specific criteria and outlines the step-by-step process for constructing them. It emphasizes the importance of conducting preliminary research, formulating clear and specific questions, and differentiates the approaches between quantitative and qualitative research.


Barroga, E., & Matanguihan, G. J. (2022). A Practical Guide to             Writing Quantitative and Qualitative Research Questions and             Hypotheses in Scholarly Articles. Journal of Korean Medical             Science, 37(16).

Black, J. A., & Champion, D. J. (1976). Methods and issues in social research. John Wiley & Sons.

Feynman, Richard (1965) The Character of Physical Law p.156

Grinnell, F. (2013). Research integrity and everyday practice of science. Science and Engineering Ethics, 19(3), 685-701. T

Harper, Douglas. "hypothesis". Online Etymology Dictionary.

Hilborn, Ray; Mangel, Marc (1997). The ecological detective: confronting models with data. Princeton University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-691-03497-3. Retrieved 22 August 2011.

Kerlinger, P., & Lein, M. R. (1986). Differences in Winter Range among age-sex Classes of Snowy Owls Nyctea scandiaca in North America. Ornis Scandinavica (Scandinavian Journal of Ornithology), 17(1), 1–7.

Mellor, Will. (2022). Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research — Here’s What You Need to Know. GLG.

Popper, Karl (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery (2002 pbk; 2005 ebook ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27844-7.

Monday 10 April 2023

Humanities for Critical and Divergent Thinking

Humanities Help Build Critical and Divergent Thinking Abilities
Studying arts and humanities, particularly literature, provides unique opportunities to develop critical and divergent thinking abilities that may not be as readily available in other fields such as sciences, commerce, engineering, technology or math. This is because literature encourages readers to think beyond the surface level of a text, to examine multiple perspectives and interpretations, and to question assumptions and conventions.

One of the key benefits of studying literature is that it requires readers to engage with complex ideas and to analyze and interpret them in a variety of ways. Literature often deals with complex themes and ideas that require readers to think deeply about the world around them. For example, a work of literature may explore themes related to identity, social justice, power dynamics, and cultural norms. Through studying literature, readers are encouraged to consider how these themes relate to their own lives and experiences, and to develop their own unique perspectives on these issues.

In addition, literature often presents multiple perspectives on a given issue or theme, allowing readers to consider a variety of viewpoints and to develop their own opinions based on evidence and analysis. This helps to develop critical thinking skills, as readers learn to evaluate arguments and evidence, and to identify biases and assumptions that may underlie different perspectives.

Another important benefit of studying literature is that it encourages divergent thinking, or the ability to generate multiple ideas and solutions to a given problem. Literature often presents complex and ambiguous situations that require readers to think creatively and to consider a variety of possible outcomes. This helps to develop problem-solving skills, as readers learn to think outside the box and to generate unique and innovative solutions.

To sum up, studying literature can provide a unique set of benefits for developing critical and divergent thinking abilities. Through engaging with complex ideas, considering multiple perspectives, and developing creative solutions to problems, readers can develop the skills and perspectives needed to succeed in a variety of fields and to contribute meaningfully to society.

Monday 3 April 2023

MA English Study Material Bhavnagar University

 M.A. English - Study Material

Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University

Friday 31 March 2023

Studio Activity in English Literature Class

The students were given task to shoot any one scene from the play 'Long Day's Journey into Night' (a play by Eugene O'Neill). The students were supposed to adapt the script of the play for short video, rewrite dialogues, storyboard the scene, rehearse the dialogues, set camera angles, find location, shoot the scene, edit it and then upload on their YouTube channel.

All the benefits of studio activities mentioned on this blog were experienced by these students.

Here are the scenes prepared by the students:

The first video is not on the play 'Long Day's Journey into Night' but it is one of the earliest attempt to use 'studio activities' in ELT classroom.

Monday 27 March 2023

Studio Activities NEP CCFUGP

Studio Activities

University Grants Commission (UGC), with a 'Foreword' dated 7th Dec 2022, shared a guiding document entitled 'Curriculum and Credit Framework for Undergraduate Programmes'. It is mentioned in the 'Foreword' that 'National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 highlights that quality education must aim to develop good, thoughtful, well-rounded, and creative individuals. The way to achieve such capabilities is only through holistic and multidisciplinary education with the freedom for students to shape their studies'.
In this CCFUGP, under 3.2.4 - Credit hours for different types of Courses, it is suggested to adopt various types of activities to be adopted for the delivery of course content.
One of the suggested activities is 'Studio Activities'. 
Let us try to understand benefits of Studio Activities.

Benefits of Studio Activities:

What are the benefits of using Studio Activities in teaching pedagogy?

Studio activities are a type of teaching method that involves hands-on, experiential learning within a studio or workshop environment. Here are some of the benefits of using studio activities in teaching pedagogy:

Active Learning: Studio activities engage students in active learning by requiring them to actively participate in the process of creating or making something. This hands-on approach helps students to develop a deeper understanding of the subject matter.

Collaboration: Studio activities often require collaboration between students, which can help them to develop communication and teamwork skills. By working together, students can learn from each other's strengths and weaknesses.

Creativity: Studio activities provide opportunities for students to express their creativity and explore new ideas. This can help to foster a love of learning and a passion for the subject matter.

Problem-solving: Studio activities often involve solving complex problems or designing solutions to real-world challenges. This can help students to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Feedback and Reflection: Studio activities often involve feedback and reflection, which can help students to improve their work and learn from their mistakes. This process of feedback and reflection can also help to build self-confidence and self-awareness.

To sum up, the studio activities provide a dynamic and engaging learning experience that can help students to develop a range of skills and knowledge.
Can we say that studio activities help in skill enhancement and ability enhancement like concept drafting, story boarding, scripting, shooting, editing videos, uploading and sharing?

Yes, absolutely! Studio activities can help students to enhance a variety of skills and abilities related to the creation and production of multimedia content, including concept drafting, storyboarding, scripting, shooting, editing videos, and uploading and sharing content. By engaging in hands-on activities and receiving feedback, students can improve their technical abilities and gain practical experience in these areas. Additionally, studio activities can also help students to develop soft skills such as communication, collaboration, and problem-solving, which are valuable in a wide range of contexts.
Can we say that studio activities involve the engagement of students in creative or artistic activities? 

Yes, we can say that studio activities involve the engagement of students in creative or artistic activities. Studio activities often involve the use of creative tools and techniques to produce art or multimedia content, which can include drawing, painting, sculpting, photography, videography, and graphic design. These activities require students to think creatively and use their imagination to develop unique and original ideas. By engaging in creative or artistic activities within a studio environment, students can explore their own creativity and develop their artistic skills, while also learning how to use various tools and techniques to express themselves.
Can we say that studio-based activities involve visual or aesthetic focused experiential work?

Yes, we can say that studio-based activities involve visual or aesthetic-focused experiential work. Studio activities often involve creating visual or multimedia content that is designed to communicate a particular message or evoke a particular emotional response. This requires students to pay close attention to the visual or aesthetic aspects of their work, including color, composition, form, texture, and lighting. By engaging in experiential work within a studio environment, students can develop their visual and aesthetic sensibilities, and learn how to create compelling and engaging content that resonates with their intended audience. Additionally, by receiving feedback from their peers and instructors, students can gain a better understanding of how their work is perceived and how they can improve their craft.

Saturday 25 March 2023

FAQs - Dissertation Writing

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Dissertation Writing

Chapter 1 - Introduction:

a. Is the topic and title properly introduced and explained?
b. Is the theoretical framework mentioned?
c. Is about the author written within the contextual framework of the dissertation topic?
d. Are selected texts introduced with reference to the dissertation topic?
e. Are research questions or hypotheses mentioned at the end of the chapter?
f. Are ‘In-text citations’ referred in parenthesis and mentioned in ‘Works Cited’ at the end of the chapter?

Chapter 2 - Literature Review:

a. How many articles, theses, books, etc. are reviewed?
b. Are the beginning and closing paragraphs interlinked to give a smooth flow to the readers?
c. Is the chapter written with ‘Introduction’ and ‘Conclusion’ of the review of related literature?
d. Is the research gap clearly identified and mentioned in the concluding paragraph?
e. Is the research gap matching with the research questions / hypotheses mentioned in the previous chapter?

Chapter 3 & 4 - Core Analyses of Texts:

a. Is the analysis done with the help of research questions / hypotheses and the research gap mentioned in previous chapters?
b. Are articles, books, theses, etc. reviewed in chapter 2 referred to bring home the argument, interpretation, or inferences in these chapters?
c. Are textual evidences in form of “quotes” from the texts written in these chapters?
d. Are interpretations based on the evidences from reviewed literature and supported from literary texts?
e. Are you able to add your own understanding to the analyses?
f. Are you able to apply the relevant literary theories while analyzing the texts?

Chapter 5 - Conclusion:

a. Have you answered the research questions / hypotheses mentioned in chapter 1?
b. Have you filled the research gap which is mentioned in chapter 2?
c. Is your conclusion based on the inferences drawn from the analyses in chapter 3 & 4?
d. Do you think you have added anything new to the existing understanding of the topic / research area?


1. Is the dissertation written cohesively with a smooth flow of ideas and arguments?
2. Is the language clear and concise?
3. Are there any grammatical or spelling errors?
4. Are all sources cited properly in-text and in the works cited section?
5. Have you followed the guidelines provided by your university or department for formatting and structuring the dissertation?
6. Have you proofread your work thoroughly?
7. Is the word count within the specified limit?
8. Have you followed ethical guidelines for research and writing?

Saturday 18 March 2023

Memorabilia 2023

Annual Function and the release of Memorabilia 2023 

Memorabilia 2023 released by Prin. Dr. Sunita Nimavat

Memorabilia 2023 released by Prin. Dr. Sunita Nimavat

Video Recording of the Annual Function 2023

Memorabilia 2023

Click here to Download Memorabilia 2023

From the Desk of the Head of the Department

~ Dilip Barad

Amidst the ethereal dreams of a future world driven by Artificial Intelligence, we now find ourselves living in the very revolution we once imagined. The present is a surreal reality, and its sheer brilliance leaves us in awe. A mere glimpse of AI's eloquence with the English language is enough to make one's heart skip a beat. As we contemplate the digital revolution, we're reminded of Wordsworth's iconic words in Book XI of the Prelude[1]:

"Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive,

But to be young was very heaven! - Oh! Times!"


These lines, written for the fervent enthusiasts of the French Revolution, resonate equally with digital aficionados.

One could draw parallels between the French Revolution and the digital age, and take the perspective of a typical Luddite[2] to discern similarities between the frustration that accompanies a trail of revolution. The Tale of Two Cities[3], which opens with the famous lines,

" It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us," echoes the tumultuous nature of our digital era.


Living on the 'threshold of time,' we face technological uncertainties that are certainties, digital disruptions that rupture the very fabric of our being with revelry. It is imperative that we look to the youth to display a level of sensibility and maturity that surpasses that of previous generations. Should they fail to do so, the best of times could turn into the worst of times, this age could become a period of digital dumbness, and despair and darkness will surely follow. The youth must tread with caution, ensuring they navigate this new path with a profound understanding of the potential consequences of Artificial Intelligence.

As students of the English language, we must come to terms with the perilous threat that AI, as a language transformer, poses to our future job prospects. Tools such as OpenAI's ChatGPT have already achieved an impressive level of performance, which could potentially jeopardize the livelihoods of English language teachers. Yet, the future is not entirely bleak. Even with the advent of these language generative tools, there will always be a demand for those who possess the skill of identifying and rectifying errors. For those who have a natural gift for working with language, the future is bright. This also serves as an ominous warning for those who have acquired a Masters in English or passed competitive exams like TET or NET, for they may find themselves jobless or unwanted if they fail to surpass AI's capabilities in terms of linguistic expertise and literary sensibilities.

Our current batch (2021-23) has shown remarkable potential, bringing accolades and honor to the Department of English in various ways. In 2022, many students from this batch secured top positions in the Research Paper Writing Competition organized by the Research Facilitation Center of Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University. Several students delivered research paper presentations in a Seminar of National level, exhibiting their academic prowess. In the Youth Festival 2022, the Department exhibited an incredible performance after almost two decades of dormancy. Participation in sports and cultural events was better than ever before, and students shone brilliantly in other prestigious events of Bhavnagar City, such as Excel Expressions.

Let us not forget that the talents of bygone eras are but echoes of the past, and the arrival of a new decade demands a novel set of aptitudes to be acquired. The youth of today must don the mantle of being lifelong learners, possessing an innate ability to self-educate and adapt to the ever-shifting digital terrain. Alas, the unrelenting onslaught of the pandemic has instilled a sense of languor in many of you, and the youth must rise up to face not only the challenge of this slothful demeanor but also the sundry health hazards that accompany unpredictable weather changes, engendering an array of allergic afflictions.

In these trying times, the virtues of mental and physical well-being will be akin to precious pearls, coveted and treasured above all else. Hence, it is never too late to cultivate a healthy routine of engaging in outdoor activities, be it at the break of dawn or the fall of dusk.

Our department strives to cultivate students to not only possess a mature understanding of life and human nature through the prism of literature but also possess the digital acumen needed to excel in the contemporary world.

We believe that learning literature helps students gain a deeper understanding of life and human nature through the prism of different literary works. It enables them to analyze complex ideas, identify different perspectives, and make informed judgments. By studying literature, students can develop empathy and sensitivity towards people from diverse cultures and backgrounds, as they are exposed to various literary works that reflect the human experience.

On the other hand, in today's digital age, having digital skills has become essential for personal and professional growth. Digital skills are required in almost every field, and students who possess them are more likely to excel in their careers. By acquiring digital skills, students can improve their problem-solving abilities, enhance their creativity, and increase their efficiency in performing various tasks. Additionally, digital skills are in high demand in the job market, and possessing them can significantly increase students' employability.

Therefore, the combination of literature and digital skills creates a well-rounded individual who can navigate the contemporary world with ease. Students who possess both can analyze complex issues, think critically, communicate effectively, and excel in their careers. The department's aim to cultivate such students, who can soar high and realize their aspirations, is commendable as it recognizes the importance of holistic education that prepares students for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century.

We fervently hope that by the time you graduate, you will have grown wings to soar high and realize your aspirations with ease.

As we journey through the digital revolution, let us not forget the hopes and aspirations that fuel our dreams. May we rise to meet the challenges of this new era with Wordsworthian zeal, ever mindful of the beauty and wonder that surrounds us. Like a butterfly emerging from its cocoon, let us spread our wings and take flight, soaring towards a future filled with infinite possibilities.

Yet, as we strive for success and fulfillment, let us not be blinded by the bright lights of progress. Let us heed the warning of Dickensian dichotomies and tales of Hard Times, which remind us of the dark side of our existence. For in this world of light, there are shadows that lurk in the corners, waiting to pounce on unsuspecting prey. Let us be vigilant and cautious, ever mindful of the pitfalls and dangers that lie in wait.

So, my dear friends, let us move forward with optimism and hope, embracing the duality of our existence. For in this balance lies the key to a successful and fulfilling life. May your hopes and aspirations remain unscathed, even as we navigate the ever-changing landscape of the digital age.


[1] The subtitle of The Prelude is 'Growth of a Poet's Mind'. William Wordsworth (1770-1850) began writing his autobiographical blank verse epic in 1798, working on it intermittently until 1839. It was published posthumously in 1850.

[2] 19C protester against technology: a worker who was involved in protests in the United Kingdom in the 1810s against new factory methods of production and who favored traditional methods of work.

[3] A Tale of Two Cities is a historical novel published in 1859 by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the French Revolution.